Impact of copper mines and smelter on groundwater quality (Case Study: Rajasthan State in India)

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) Laboratory, Bhilwara-311 001, Rajasthan, India

2 National River Water Quality Laboratory, Central Water Commission, New Delhi-110 016, India

3 Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University, Tonk-304022, Rajasthan, India

4 Department of Chemistry, Sangam University, Bhilwara-311001, Rajasthan, India



Rajasthan is one of the main mineral potential state of India. During the last 30 years it has witnessed enormous expansion of mining industries, but mining of most of the minor minerals coupled with changing climate has posed serious problems to the environmental fabric in the state, apart from base metal beneficiation plants. Groundwater is also being polluted day-by-day by effluents generated from mineral wastes and beneficiation processes in the vicinity of mining sites such as Khetri. Pollutant concentrations were measured in groundwater at the vicinity of Khetri copper mining project, Rajasthan to investigate the influence of copper mining on environment. Pollutant concentrations in groundwater were investigated. Copper metal concentration in water samples were found above the maximum desirable limit in two sources: G4 and G5, due to washing away of mineral with water. Mining industry has deteriorated quality of groundwater resources in the state of Rajasthan, and these industries are becoming centers of pollution sources which need timely actions at government level so that natural resources such as groundwater can be protected.


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