Vulnerability assessment of surface water quality with an innovative integrated multi-parameter water quality index (IMWQI)

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 1Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2 Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

3 Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

4 Research Division for Higher Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

5 Agricultural Faculty of the University of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Indonesia

6 University of PalangkaRaya, Palangka Raya, Indonesia

7 Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh



The development of a surface water evaluation index is a critical factor in the assessment, restoration and protection of stream water quality. Quantifying water pollution in specific grade using dominant parameters is important, as this can explain the current state of water pollution with accuracy. As a result, an integrated multi-parameter water quality index has been developed. It is based on the 10 most prevailing parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate ions, phosphate ions, Escherichia coli number, cadmium, chromium, lead, copper and manganese) with a scale of 1 to 4, wherein the grades are classified into 1: good; 1.1-1.5: slightly polluted; 1.6-2.0: moderately polluted; 2.1-2.9: heavily polluted and 3.0-4.0: gravely polluted. The measuring stick used was according to the 2011 background values of the World Health Organization (WHO) in which a value of 0.1 was attributed for each, so that the final grade can be calculated. Water quality data were successfully fitted in an integrated multi-parameter water quality index to measure the river water level of pollution, and effectively represented every water bodies. This innovative index is able to quantify pollution with respect to seasons, geography and geomorphology of the respective rivers. Although operative, this index still lacks scientific integrity and as such, more synoptic experiments in the rivers of developing countries are recommended to attain a pragmatic feature.


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