DO-BOD modeling of River Ganga from Devprayag to Roorkee, India using BMKB model

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India



The idea of systems analysis and mathematical modeling for formulating and resolving river pollution issues is of relatively recent vintage and has been applied widely in the last 3 decades. The present study illustrates the utility of Beck-modified Khanna–Bhutiani model (BMKB) to determine the pollution load due to the presence of organic matter in River Ganga from its course from Devprayag to Roorkee through the holy city of India, Haridwar. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years between 2010 and 2013. The study was aimed to verify the BMKB model for River Ganga. This model was simulated and calibrated through the data obtained by model by comparing it with the field data observed manually. Paired T-test were performed for dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) between the titrated value and modelled value to determine if there was any statistically significant difference between the means of respective values. The results of T-test revealed statistically significant difference between DO and BOD, i.e., DO t (11)= 3.819, P= 0.003, BOD t(11)= 14.635, P= 0.000. The model presented with a good agreement between the calibrated and observed data, thereby actualizing the validity of the proposed model.


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