Assessing Heavy Metal Contamination in the Bottom Sediments of Shitalakhya River, Bangladesh; Using Pollution Evaluation Indices and Geo-spatial Analysis

Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh

2 Department of Geological Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh

3 Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur-3814, Bangladesh

10.7508/pj.2016.03.005

Abstract

The contamination of riverbed sediments by heavy metals has assumed
serious problems due to their toxicity and accumulative behavior. The present study
investigated the concentrations of heavy metals from the bottom sediments of Shitalakhya
River to understand the level of contamination and their distribution. The average
concentrations of heavy metals Al, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, As, Cu, Co, Cr, and Zn are 30432.41,
10929.21, 391139.13, 23148.14, 38697.37, 14.02, 143.69, 13.37, 74.82, and 200.59
mg/kg respectively in river sediments, and their abundance decreased in the following
order: Ca (79.05%)>Fe (7.82%)>Al (6.15%)>Mg (4.68%)>K (2.21%)>Zn (0.04%)>Cu
(0.03%)>Cr (0.015%)>As (0.0028%)>Co (0.0027%). In most cases, the mean
concentrations of the heavy metals exceed the permissible limit. Significantly higher
concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu were found in sediment samples. The heavy metals
contaminations in the sediments were also evaluated by applying index of geoaccumulation
(Igeo), contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), and pollution
load index (PLI) etc. These indices indicated that most of the samples were moderate to
strongly pollute by heavy metals and the spatial distribution showed that the northern and
southern parts of the study area are more contaminant than middle portion.

Keywords


Armitage, P.D., Bowes, M.J. and Vincent, H.M. (2007). Long-term changes in macroinvertebrate communities of a heavy metal polluted stream: the River Nent (Cumbria, UK) after 28 years. River Res. Appl., 23, 997-1015.

Banu, Z., Alam, M.S., Chowdhury, Hossain, M.D. and Nakagami, K. (2013). Contamination and ecological risk assessment of heavy metal in the sediment of Turag River, Bangladesh: An index analysis approach. J. Water Res. and Protec., 5, 239-248.  

Bhuiyan, M.A.H., Samuel B., Dampare, Islam, M.A. and Suzuki, S. (2015). Source apportionment and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in water and sediments of Buriganga River, Bangladesh, using multivariate analysis and pollution evaluation indices. Environ. Monit. Assess., 187, 4075.  

Cataldo, D., Colombo, J.C., Boltovskoy, D., Bilos, C. and Landoni, P. (2001). Environmental toxicity assessment in the Parana River delta (Argentina): simultaneous evaluation of selected pollutants and mortality rates of Corbicula Fluminea (Bivalvia) early juveniles. Environ. Poll., 112 (3), 379-389.

Chowdhury, M.H.I. (2006). Urban diversity and changes under globalization: A management perspective on beneficial urban development with a special reference to Dhaka megacity. Paper submitted to T.U., Berlin, Germany.

DoE (1997). Water quality data of Rivers Buriganga, Meghna, Balu, Shitalakhya, Jamuna (1991-2000). Department of Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Gurrieri, J.T. (1985). Distribution of metals in water and sediment and effects on aquatic biota in the upper Stillwater River basin, Montana. J. Geochem. Explo., 64, 83–100.

Hakanson, L. (1980). Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Res., 14(8), 975-1001.  

Harikumar, P.S., Nasir, U.P. and Rahman, M.P.M. (2009). Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 6 (2), 225-232.  

Hassan, M., Rahman, M.A.T.M.T., Saha, B. and Kamal, A.K.I. (2015). Status of heavy metals in water and sediment of the Meghna River, Bangladesh. American J. Environ. Sci., 11 (6), 427-439.  

Hobbelen, P.H.F., Koolhaas, J.E. and van Gestel, C.A.M. (2004). Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account. Environ Poll., 129(3), 409-419.

Islam, M.S., Han, S. and Masunaga, S. (2014). Assessment of trace metal contamination in water and sediment of some rivers in Bangladesh. J. Water Environ. Technol., 12, 109-121.

Islam, M.S. (2014). Metropoliton Government: An option for sustainable development of Dhaka Mega city. Environ. and Urbanization ASIA, 5(1) 35-48. 

Islam, M.S., Ahmed, M.K., Raknuzzaman, M. Habibullah-Al-Mamun and Islam, M.K. (2015). Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: A preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country. Ecol Indic, 48, 282-291. 

Islam, S.M.D. and Azam, G. (2015). Seasonal variation of physicochemical and toxic properties in three major rivers; Shitalakhya, Buriganga and Turag around Dhaka city, Bangladesh. J. Bio. Environ. Sci., 7(3), 120-131. 

Jongea M.D., Vijverb B.V., Blusta R. and Bervoetsa L. (2009). Responses of aquatic organisms tometal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macro invertebrates. Sci. of the Tot. Environ., 407: 615-629.

Karim, A. (2004). Implications on ecosystems in Bangladesh' in M.Q. Mirza (ed.), The Ganges Water Diversion: Environmental Effects and Implications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 125-161.

Khan, M.K.A. (2008). Environmental pollution around Dhaka EPZ and its impact on soil, water and ecology. An unpublished M. Sc. thesis, Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.

Koukal, B., Dominik, J., Vignati, D., Arpagaus, P., Santiago, S., Ouddane, B. and Benaabidate, L. (2004). Assessment of water quality and toxicity of polluted rivers Fez and Sebou in the region of Fez (Morocco). Environ. Poll., 131(1), 163-172.

Majumder, R.K., Faisal B.M.R., Zaman M.N., Uddin M.J. and Sultana N. (2015). Assessment of heavy metals pollution in bottom sediment of the Buriganga River, Dhaka, Bangladesh by multivariate statistical analysis. Int Res J Environ Sci., 4(5), 80-84. 

Manoj, K., Kumar, B. and Padhy, P.K. (2012). Characterization of metals in water and sediments of Subarnarekha river along the projects' sites in Lower Basin, India. Universal J. Environ. Res. Technol., 2: 402-410.

Martin, J.M., and Meybeck, M. (1979). Elemental mass balance of materials carried by major world rivers. Marine Chem., 7(3), 173-206.

Mohiuddin, M.K., Ogawa, Y., Zakir, M.H, Otomo, K. and Shikazono, N. (2010). Heavy metals contamination in water and sediments of an urban river in a developing country. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 8(4),723-736.

Morin, S., Vivas-Nogues, M., Duong, T.T., Boudou, A., Coste, M. and Delmas, F. (2007). Dynamics of benthic diatom colonization in acadmium/zinc-polluted river (RiouMort,France).Funda.  Appl. Limnology, 168 (2), 179–187.

Muller, G. (1979). Index of Geoaccumulation in Sediments of the Rhine River. J. Geology, 2(3), 108-118.

Ogbeibu, A.E., Omoigberale, M.O., Ezenwa, M.I., Eziza, J.O. and Igwe, J.O. (2014). Using pollution load index and geoaccumulation index for the assessment of heavy metal pollution and sediment quality of the Benin River, Nigeria. Nat. Environ., 2: 1-9. DOI: 10.12966/ne.05.01.2014

Okafor, E.C. and Opuene, K., (2007). Preliminary assessment of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4(2), 233 – 240.

Peng, K., Luo, C., Luo, L., Li, X. and Shena, Z. (2008). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic plants. Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Potamogeton malaianus Miq. and their potential use for contamination indicators and inwastewater treatment. Sci. of the Tot. Environ., 392, 22-29.

Pekey, H. (2006) Heavy metal pollution assessment in sediments of the Izmit Bay, Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess., 123, 219–231.

Puyate, Y.T., Rim-Rukeh A. and Awatefe, J.K. (2007). Metal pollution assessment and particle size distribution of bottom sediment of Orogodo River, Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci., 3(12), 2056-2061.

Rahman, M.S., Saha, N. and Molla, A.H. (2014). Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediment and water body around Dhaka export processing zone, Bangladesh. Environ. Earth Sci., 71, 2293-2308. 

Sin, S.N., Chua, H., Lo, W. and Ng, L.M. (2001). Assessment of heavy metal cations in sediments of Shing Mun River, Hong Kong. Environ. Int., 26, 297-301.

Srebotnjak, T., Carr, G., de Sherbinin, A. and Rickwood, C. (2012). A global water quality index and hot-deck imputation of missing data. Ecol. Indic., 17, 108-119.

Su, S., Xiao, R., Mi, X., Xu, X., Zhang, Z. and Wu, J. (2013). Spatial determinants of hazardous chemicals in surface water of Qiantang River, China. Ecol. Indic., 24, 375–381.

Stern, B.R., Solioz, M., Krewski, D., Aggett, P., Aw, T.C., Baker, S., Crump, K., Dourson, M., Haber, L., Hertzberg, R., Keen, C., Meek, B., Rudenko, L., Schoeny, R., Slob, W. and Starr T. (2009). Copper and human health: biochemistry, genetics, and strategies for modeling dose response relationships. J. Toxic. Environ. Health, Part B. 10, 157–222.

Trefry, L.H. and Parsley, B.J. (1976). Heavy metal transport from the Mississippi river to the Gulf of Mexico. In: HL Windhom and RA Duce (Eds.). Marine Pollution Transfer, Lexington: Lexington Books, pp. 39-76.

USEPA (1998). EPA’s Contaminated Sediment Management Strategy. 823-98–001.

Usero, J., Morillo, J. and Gracia, I. (2000). Heavy metal concentrations in molluscs from the Atlantic coast of southern Spain. Chemosphere, 59 (2005), 1175–1181.

Yuan, G.L., Liu, C., Chen, L. and Yang, Z. (2011). Inputting history of heavy metals into the inland lake recorded in sediment profiles: Poyang Lake in China. J. Hazard Mater., 185, 336-345.