Evaluation of Cadmium Removal from the Water in Phytoremeiation Process Using Eichhornia crassipes

Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O.Box. 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Conserving water resources and protecting them from pollution are of high account in the natural cycle of our life. This study has tried to determine the refining potential and capacity of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in order to remove the cadmium from water, studying the influence of factors such as initial concentration of cadmium, contact time, absorbent mass, and pH. Results have shown that the best efficiency of cadmium, more than 99%, was obtained in the optimum conditions (i.e. retention time of 30 hours, adsorbent dose of three plants (12 stems), and pH=6.6). By increasing the initial concentration of cadmium from 0.28 to 8.28 mg/L, the elimination efficiency did not change; moreover, by increasing the absorbent mass, the elimination efficiency increased from 98.4 to 99.8 and the lowest retention time was obtained for the balance. All experiments have been repeated three times, showing in the end that water hyacinth is able to absorb cadmium up to 8.28 mg/L. This process follows Freundlich isotherm (R2=0.98). Results of this study indicate that this plant can grow well at high levels of cadmium and the growth of water hyacinth is better in the presence of cadmium than control conditions (city water). Finally, it can be concluded that it is necessary to provide a reliable, cheap, and fast method to eliminate pollution. Eichhornia crassipes, a promising plant with great functionality, can be used as a refiner in order to eliminate the heavy metals in wastewater (sewage) effluents, particularly industrial sewage. 

Keywords


Alipour, S. (2010). Cadmium removal from agricultural wastewater using sugar cane bagasse. J. Chem. Eng., Iran Summer, 29(2), 99-107.

Asadi, F. (2001). The removal of heavy metals from the industrial wastewater using the paddy hull, rice, sawdust and soil. (Master thesis: U. Isfahan tech., soil sci. field), 157.

Asghar Zadeh, F., Amooei, A., Ehram pour, M., Ghaneian, M. and Faraji, H. (2013a). The study of conala waste efficiency in the removal of cadmium from the aqueous solutions. U. Tabriz med. sci. and health serv.

Asghar Zadeh, F., Amooei, A., Ehrampush, M., Ghaneian, M., Halal Khor, S. and Jafari, S. (2013b). The study of the efficiency of sunflower plant wastes in cadmium elimination from aqua solutions. Sci.-research quarterly of Yazd Sanitary Coll., 12(4), 1-12.

Baker, A.J.M. and Walker, P.L. (1989). Ecophysiology of metal uptake by tolerant plants. (In: Shaw A, eds. Heavy metal tolerance in plants – Evolutionary aspects. CRC Press, 155-177.

Bhatt, K. (1997). Occurance and distribution of Nitrate and pesticides in Bowdle aquifer, South.

Center, T. and Spencer, N.R. (1981). The phenology and growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes(Mart) Solms) in a eutrophic north central Florida lake. Aquat. Botany, 10, 1-32.

Deen, G.F., Bosqui and Lanouette, H. (1972). Removing heavy metals fromwastewater. Environ. Sci. Tech., 6, 777-788.

Dermentzis, K.A., Christoforidis and Valsamidou, E. (2011). Removal of nickel, copper, zinc and chromium from synthetic and industrial wastewater by electrocoagulation. J. Environ. Sci., 1 (5), 112-119.

Edwards, D. and Musil, C.J. (1975). Eichhornia crassipes in South Africa. A general review. J. the Limnological Soc. Southetn Africa, 1, 23-27.

Gholami Boroujeni, F. and Nejat Zadeh, F. (2010). The study of urban green space wastes efficiency in the removal of cadmium from the aqueous environments. The fifth conf. effluent manage.

Heidari, A.H., Younesi, Z. and Mehraban (2009). Removal of Cd(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions in an aqueous solution by chemically modified nanoporous MCM-41, 1, 25-33.

Heidari, Z. (2009). Review process to remove cadmium from the aqueous environment at low concentrations by the modified husk. (PhD thesis, Chamran Shahid Ahvaz U.).

Imamoglua, M., Yıldıza, H., Altundaga, H. and Turhanb, Y. (2015). Effective separation of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution through a carbon shell (DHHC). J. Dispersion Sci. and Tech., 36(2), 284-290.

Ismail, A.S., Abeal-Sabour, R.M. and Rad, W. (1996). Water hyacinth asindicator for heavy metal Pollurion in different selected sites and waterbodies around greater Cairo. Egypt J. Soil Sci., 36, 343-354.

Kutty, S.R.M. (2012). Nutrients removal from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent using Eichhornia Crassip. Word Acad. sci., Eng. and Tech., 3, 13-15.

Lu, X., Kruatrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P. and Homyok, K. (2004). Removal of cadmium and zinc by water hyacinth. Sci. Asia, 30, 93-103.

Mahvi, A.H., Nouri, J., Omrani, G.A. and Gholami, F. (2007). Application of Platanus orientalis Leaves in Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution. World Appl. Sci. J., 2(1), 40-4.

McCutcheon, S.C. and Schnoor, J.L.(2003). Phytoremediation transformation and control of contaminants. (New York: John Wiley and Sons).

Mohseni, A. (2008).Health problems of nitrate in drinking water and health risks associated with nitrate in drinking water. Scientific journal. U. Mazandaran med. sci., 15, 15.

Mosleh Arani, A., Khosravi, M., Azimzadeh, Sodaei Zadeh, H. and Sepahvand, A. (2014). The study of Mytus Communis and Pinus britia in cadmium absorption. Environ. stud., 40(1), 28.

Nanda Kumar, P.B.A., Dushenkov, V., Motto, H. and Raskin, I. (1995). Phytoxtraction: The use of plants to remove heavy metal from soils. Environ. Sci. and Tech., 29, 1232-1238.

Ramezani, A. (2008). Heavy metal chemistry. The press U. Zanjan.

Sedaghat, H. (2013). Nitrate removal from the water using the sunflower and corn stem (stalk). Natl. inst. talents, 15-19.

Shah Mohammadi Heidari, Z. (2013). The omparison of paddy hull and activated carbon in removal of low-concentration cadmium with from the aqueous environment. J. water Resour. eng., 16, 1-10.

Sundaralingam, T. and Gnanavelrajah, N. (2014). Phytoremediation potential of selected plants for Nitrate and Phosphorus from ground water. Int. J. Phytoremediation, 16(3), 275-284.