Evaluation of pesticide residues in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and the potential health risk to consumers in urban areas of Ghana

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Kocaeli, 41380 Izmit, Kocaeli, Turkey

2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi, and Accra are the major recipients of agricultural commodities or productions in Ghana, primarily due to their population and ready markets. To ensure food security, meet food demands, and mitigate the threats posed by pests and diseases, pesticides are used when cultivating vegetables and fruits in Ghana. The present study has been conducted to assess the concentration of various pesticide residues in tomatoes, obtained from three market centers (namely Bantama, Central, and Ayigya Markets) in Kumasi, dealing with potential health risks for the consumers. Analyzed samples have revealed high percentage of organophosphorous pesticide residues (45%) in Ayigya market with Bantama market recording high percentage of organochlorines and pyrethroid. Laboratory analysis of tomato samples for various pesticides residues has indicated that all the pesticide residues pose no threat to human’s health with all estimated hazard indices being below 1; however, heptachlor (HI=0.85) and dieldrin (HI=0.74) have shown the highest risk levels in children. The study reveals that there is some need for strict monitoring of heptachlor and dieldrin in tomato, especially in case of children.


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