Life cycle assessment of construction phase of monorail project in Qom, Iran

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Civil Engineering Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Transportation is an important part of modern community life as well as one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in urban communities, the population growth of which can increase transportation capacity. Monorail systems are relatively new rail transportation systems which are currently being designed and constructed in different countries. We have applied the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to deal with global warming and Center of Environmental Science of Leiden University (Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden), CML 2001, to evaluate the potential of acid raining. In order to analyze both mentioned methods, Sima Pro7.1 has been used. Initially the research-related data have been prepared from Qom Monorail workplace. Moreover the sensitivity analysis has been performed on the results, which indicated that the potential of causing global warming in the construction phase for a period of 100 years was equal to 26875.07 kg CO2eq. /km. person. The reinforcement bar with 32%, concrete with 30%, and diesel fuel with 15% enjoyed the lion’s share in terms of global warming creation. The likelihood of acid raining formation was equal to 101.876 kg SO2eq. /km. person. Diesel fuel contributed the most portion to the formation of acid raining (31%) with reinforcement bar and concrete in the second (30%) and third (13%) places. For result validation, the BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) software has applied with the sensitivity analysis, indicating that the first and second effective parameters on the results were the amount of reinforcement bar and diesel fuel. Hence, reduction of reinforcement bars, concrete, and diesel (respectively) have the most influence on mitigation of global warming and acid raining effects of Qom monorail project.


Abeliotis, K., Kalogeropoulos, A., Lasaridi, K. (2012). Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece. Waste Management, 32, 213-219.
Akerman, J. (2010). The role of high-speed rail in mitigating climate change – The Swedish case Europabanan from a life cycle perspective, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(3), 208-217.
Asadollahfardi, G., Mehdinejad, M., Mirmohammadi, M. and Asadollahfardi, R. (2015), “Predicting atmospheric concentrations of benzene in the southeast of Tehran using artificial neural network”, Asian J. Atmosp. Environ., 9(1), 12-21.
Banar, M., Zerrin, C. and Aysun, O. (2009). Life Cycle Assessment of Solid Waste Management options for Eskisehir. Turkey Department of Environmental Engineering, Anadolu University, Turkey. Journal of Waste Management, 29,54-62.
Berge, B. (2009). The Ecology of Building Materials, Oxford: Architectural Press, Second Edition, ISBN: 978- 1- 85617- 537-1, the UK.
Bilec, M., Ries, R. and Matthews, A. (2010). Life-Cycle Assessment Modeling of Construction Processes for Buildings. Journal of infrastructure systems. 16(3), 199-205.
Bilec, M., Ries, R., Matthews, S. and Sharrard, A. (2006). Example of a Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Construction Processes. Journal of infrastructure systems.12 (4), 207-216.
Blengini, G.A. and Di Carlo, T. (2010). The changing role of life cycle phases, subsystems and materials in the LCA of low energy buildings, Energ. Buildings, 42, 869-880.
Calderón, L.A., Iglesias, L., Laca, A., Herrero, M. and Díaz, M. (2010). The utility of Life Cycle Assessment in the ready meal food industry. Resour. Conserv. Recy., 54, 1196-1207.
Change, B. and Kendall, A. (2011). Life cycle greenhouse gas assessment of infrastructure construction for California’s high- speed rail system, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(6), 429-434.
Chester, M.V. and Horvath, A. (2009). Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains. Environmental Research Letters. 4(2), 1-10.
Chester, M.V. and Horvath, A. (2010). Life-cycle assessment of high-speed rail: the case of California. Environmental Research Letters, 5(1), 1-10.  
Eriksson, A. (2012). Identification of Environmental Impacts of  the Vectus PRT System Using LCA, M.Sc. Thesis, Uppsala University, Swedish.
Huntzinger, D. and Eatmon T.D. (2009). A life cycle assessment of Portland cement manufacturing: comparing the traditional process with alternative technology, Clean. Product., 17(7), 668-675.
Ito, K., Kato. H. and Shibahara, N. (2010). Life Cycle CO2 Emissions for Local Passenger Transport Modes of Different Passenger Flow Volume. The 9th international conference on Ecobalance. November, Tokyo, Japan, P 80.
Keolian, G., Kendall, A., Dettling, J., Smith, V., Chandler R., Lepech, M. and Li, V. (2005). Life Cycle Modeling of Concrete Bridge Design: Comparison of Engineered Cementitious Composite Link Slabs and Conventional Steel Expansion Joints. Journal of infrastructure systems. DOI: 10,1061/(ASCE)1076- 0342, 11:1(51).
Kiani, M., Parry, T. and Ceney, H. (2008). Environmental life-cycle assessment of railway track beds. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers- Engineering Sustainability. ISSN: 1478-4629.
Li, X., Liu, J., Xu, H. and Zhong, P. (2011). Calculation of endogenous carbon dioxide emission during highway tunnel construction: A case study. Water Resource and Environment Protection, international symposium. May, 3: 2260- 2264.
Milford, R. and Allwood, J. (2009). Assessing the CO2 impact of current and future rail track in the UK. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 15(2), 61-72.
Product ecology (PRe) consults (2007). SimaPro life cycle assessment software package, Version 7.1, Product ecology (PRe) consults, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Product Ecology Consultant (2013). SimaPro Database Manual Methods Library, Netherlands: Product Ecology Consultant’s Report, Version: 2.5.
Ossés de Eicker, M., Hischier, R., Kulay, L.A., Lehmann, M., Zah, R. and Hurni, H. (2010). The Applicability of Non-Local LCI Data for LCA, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, 192-199.
Osada, M., Watanabe, Y., Shibahara, N. and Kato, H. (2006). Environmental Load Evaluation of Variety of Medium Capacity Passenger Transport Systems Applying LCA. Infrastructure Planning Review, ISSN: 0913-4034.
Rankin, W.J. (2011). Minerals, Metals and Sustainability (Meeting Future Material Needs), Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), ISBN: 978-0-415-68459-0.
Seo, M., Kim, T., Hong, G. and Kim, H. (2016). On-Site Measurements of CO2 Emissions during the Construction Phase of a Building Complex. Energies. 9(8), 599,1-13.
Stripple, H. and Uppenberg, S. (2010). Life cycle assessment of railways and rail transports – application in environmental product declaration (EPDs) for the Bothnia.
Solymani, M. and Barikani, L. (2015). Monorail review for rapid and mass transport, Railway research center,, Visited on April 3.2015.
Valderrama, C., Granados, R., Cortina, J., Gasol, C., Guillem, M. and Josa, A. (2012). Implementation of Best Available Techniques in Cement Manufacturing: A Life-Cycle Assessment Study, Clean. Product. 25, 60-67.