Enhanced Bioremediation of Brass Crude-Oil (Hydrocarbon), Using Cow Dung and Implication on Microbial Population

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Environmental Biology unit, Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

2 Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.


The present study has used soil samples from Nigeria, contaminated with Brass crude-oil, to determine its biodegradation through enhanced biostimulation with cow dung and periodic aeration. Over a period of twenty-eight days, the hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (HUB) and hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi (HUF) have been counted and identified. Results from biodegradation of the brass crude-oil over the aforementioned period show that amended crude-oil-spiked soil has had 54.82% degradation while for amendment and periodic turning this has been 55.90%, not significantly higher than the former at p≤0.05. Also degradation of spiked soil without cow dung amendment has been 16.13%. The identified HUB are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus thermophillus, with individual occurrence of 18.52% as well as Proteus vulgaris and Micrococcus luteus with 11.11% and 14.81% occurrence, respectively. Also, the occurrence rate of HUF like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Trichothecium roseum, and Penicillium citrinum have been 15.63% each;whilefor Alternaria alternata and Neurospora crazza it has been 6.25% and for Saccharomyces cerevisae and A. fumigatus, 9.38%and3.13%, respectively. The study concludes that amendment with cow dung and periodic turning of the soil enhance degradation of Brass crude-oil significantly. What is more, aeration by periodic turning slightly improves degradation only with cow dung treatment on Days 21 and 28.


Abu, G.O. and Ogiji, P. A. (1996). Initial Test of a bioremediation scheme for the clean-up of an oil polluted water body in Nigeria. Bioresource Technology, 58; 7-12.
Adesodun, J.K. and Mbagwu, G. C. (2008). Biodegradation of waste lubricating petroleum oil in a tropical alfisol as mediated by animal droppings. Bioresource Technology, 99; 5659-5665
Agbor, R. B., Ekpo1, I. A., Osuagwu, A.N., Udofia, U.U., Okpako, E.C and Antai, S. P. (2012). Biostimulation of microbial degradation of crude-oil polluted soil using cocoa pod husk and plantain peels. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 2 (3); 464-469.
Atuanya, E.I. (1987). Effect of oil pollution and chemical properties of soil: a case study of waste oil-contaminated Delta soil in Bendel State. Nigerian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5; 155-176.
Ausma, S., Edwards, G.C., Fitzgerald-Hubbie, C.R., Halfpenny-Mitchell, L., Gillespie, T.J. and Mortimer, W.P. (2002). Volatile hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel fuel contaminated soil bioremediation facility. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 52; 769-780
Bossert, I. and Bartha, R. (1984). The fate of petroleum in soil ecosystem. In: (Atlas, R. M. ed.). Petroleum microbiology, Macmillan, New York, pp. 435-73
Chang, W., Akbari, A., Snelgrove, J., Frigon, D. and Ghoshal, S. (2013). Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated clayey soils from a sub-arctic site: the role of aggregate size and microstructure. Chemosphere, 91; 1620-1626.
Fatuyi, O. E., Oluwatoyin, F. O. and Esther, A. E. (2012). Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude-oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 8(1); 42-46.
Hamamura, N., Olson, S.H., Ward, D. M. and Inskeep, W. P. (2006). Microbial population dynamics associated with crude-oil biodegradation in diverse soils. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 72; 6316-632
Hwang, E., Namkoong, W. and Park, (2001). Recycling of remediated soil for effective composting of diesel-contaminated soil. Compost Science and Utilization, 9(2);143-149.
Ijah, U.J.J. and Ukpe, L. I. (1992). Biodegradation of crude-oil by Bacillus strains 28A and 61B isolated from oil spilled soil. Waste Management, 123; 55-60.
Ijah, U. J. J., Auta, A. H. and Olanrewaju, R. K. (2013). Biostimulation of crude-oil contaminated soil using soybean waste. Advance Science Focus, 1; 1-7
Jidere, C. M. and Akamigbo, F.O.R. (2009). Hydrocarbon Degradation in Poultry droppings and Cassava Peels-Amended Typic Paleustults in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension 8 (1); 24-33.
Lee, K., Park, J.W. and Ahn, I. S. (2003). Effect of additional carbon source on naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 105; 157-167
Obire, O. (1990). Bacterial degradation of three different crude oils in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Botany, 3; 93-103.
Olabisi, P. A., Olabimpe, A. A. and Udeme, J. J. (2009). Biodegradation of crude-oil in soil amended with melon shell. Assumption University Journal of Technology, 13(1); 34-38.
Snape, I., Riddle, M. J., Stark, J. S., Cole, C. M. and Gore, D. B. (2001). Management and remediation of contaminated sites at Casey station. Antarctica Polar Record,37; 199-214.
Udeh, N.U., Nwaogazie, I. L. and Momoh, Y. (2013). Bio-remediation of a crude-oil contaminated soil using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Advances in Applied Science Research, 4(2); 362-369.
Wang, G. S., Chavhan, D. M. and Sayyed, M. R. (2013). Physicochemical Analysis of Soils from Eastern Part of Pune City. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, 3 (1); 93-99.
Wu, M., Dick, W.A., Li, W., Wang, X., Yang, Q., Wang, T., Xu, L., Zhang, M. and Chen, L. (2016). Bioaugmentation and biostimulation of hydrocarbon degradation and the microbial community in a petroleum-contaminated soil. Int. Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 107; 158-164.