Assessment of Heavy Metals and Microbial Load of Groundwater Samples from Ibadan Metropolis Nigeria

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 The Polytechnic, Ibadan, P.M.B 22, UI Post Office, Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria

2 Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 5054, Jericho hill Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria


The present study investigates groundwater quality in terms of heavy metals level and microbial contamination as well as the impact of bleaching powder on microbial load of groundwater samples in close proximity to a surface water body inside selected areas of Ibadan Nigeria. To do so, it collects nine water samples from three boreholes and six hand-dug wells from six locations, namely Eleyele, Wofun-Olodo, Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ogunpa, Olorunsogo, and Ojoo, keeping them in 750 mL plastic bottles. The samples are then divided by two, giving a total amount of 18 samples, with 3 and 6 duplicates apiece being treated with bleaching powder and the rest remaining untreated. Both sample sets have been analysed for water quality parameters such as pH, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand, assessed using standard methods. The coliform count has been determined, using the pour plate method while heavy metal has been set by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after nitric acid digestion.
Results show that the pH ranges within 6.0-6.5, BOD within 1.67-4.33mg of O2/L, and COD  within 2.93-9.43, while heavy metal concentration is from 0.013 to 0.047 mg/L for lead, ND to 0.023 mg/L for chromium, and ND to 0.010 for cadmium. What is more, the coliform count in the samples is between 0.00 and 913.33 CFU/mL. Most of the samples exceed the WHO limits for heavy metals in drinking water, having significant levels of microbial contamination. Bleaching powder treatment alleviated the level of pollution to varying degrees; therefore, constant monitoring of groundwater source and treatment before drinking is of utmost importance.


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