Estimation of Annual Effective Dose of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in indoor Air of Rohilkhand region, Uttar Pradesh state, India

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Physics, School of Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, UP, India., 244001.


The annual exposure to indoor radon and thoron imparts a major contribution to inhalation doses received by the public. In this study, we report results of time integrated passive of indoor radon and thoron concentrations that were carried out in Rohilkhand region with health risk to the dwellers in the region.  In present study, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDS ) based twin chamber dosimeter with LR-115 track detector were used for estimating Radon (222Rn) and Thoron (220Rn) gas concentration levels in the dwellings of Moradabad city. The average Radon and thoron concentration levels in the studied dwellings were found to vary from 13.5 to 21.8 Bq m-3 and thoron concentrations is found to vary from 11.7 to 19.5 Bqm-3 and its corresponding geometric mean of equilibrium-equivalent 222Rn and 220Rn concentration were found 7.07 to 1.7 Bqm-3 . The total annual effective dose due to the exposure to radon and thoron was found to vary from3.7 to 6.2 mSv/y whereas from thoron found to vary from 0.3 to 0.61 mSv/y.


Cartwright, B. G., Shirk, E. K. and Price, P. B. (1978). A nuclear-track-recording polymer of unique sensitivity and resolution. Nucl. Inst. Methods, 153: 457-460.
 Eappen, K. P. and Mayya, Y. S. (2004), Calibration factors for LR-115 (type-II) based radon thoron discriminating dosimeter. Rad. Meas., 38:5–17.
 Folkerts, K., Keller, G. and Muth, H. (1984).  Experimental study on diffusion and exhalation of 222Rn and 220Rn from building materials. Rad. Prot. Dos., 9 (1): 27-34.

Hamori, K. E. and Koteles, T. G., (2006).  Evaluation of indoor radon measurements in Hungary. Jl . Envir.Radio., 88 (2):189-198.

 Health Protection Agency, Radon and Public Health. (2009). Report of the independent Advisory Group on Ionizing Radiation, (Health Protection Agency, RCE-11).
 ICRP, (1993). International commission on radiological protection, ICRP publication 65. Oxford: Pergamon press.
 Jarad, F. A., and Fremlin, J. H. (1981). A Working Level Monitor for Radon Measurements Inside Houses. Rad. Prot. Dos., 1(3): 221–226.
 Kobeissi, M. A., Omar, E. S., Khaled, Z. and Ibrahim, R. (2014) Assessment of Indoor and Outdoor Radon Levels in South Lebanon. New York: Springer, 5 (3): 214-26. 
 Kumar, A., Kumar, A. and Singh, S. (2012). Analysis of Radium and Radon in the Environmental Samples and some physico-chemical properties of drinking water samples belonging to some areas of Rajasthan and Delhi, India. Adv. App. Sci. Res., 3 (5):2900-2905.
 Mehra, R. and Bala,  P. (2013) Effect of ventilation conditions on the annual effective dose due to indoor radon concentration. Adv. App. Sci. Res.,4 (1) :212-215.
 Mehra, R., Singh, S. and Singh, K. (2006). A study of uranium,radium, radon exhalation rate and indoor radon in the environs of some areas of Malwa region, Punjab. Ind. Built Env., 15(5): 499-505.
 Nasir, T. and Shah, M. (2012). Measurement of annual effective doses of radon from drinking water and dwellings by CR- 39 track detectors in kulachi city of Pakistan. Jon. Bas.App. Sci., 8: 528-536.
Pinel, J., Fearn, T., Darby, S. C. and Miles, J. H. C. (1995). Seasonal correction factors for indoor radon in the UK. Rad. Prot. Dos., 58 (2): 127–132.
     Kandari, T., Aswal,  S., Prasad M.,   Bourai A. A. and Ramola R.C. (2016). Estimation of annual           effective dose from radon concentration along Main Boundary Thrust in Garhwal Himalaya. 9 (3): 228-233.
  Ramola, R. C., Rawat, R. B. S., Kandari, M. S., Ramachandran, T. V., Eappen, K. P., and Subba Ramu, M. C. (1996). Calibration of LR-115 Plastic track detector for environmental radon measurements. Ind. Built Env. 5: 364-366.
 Ramola, R. C., Rawat, R. B. S., Kandari, M. S., Ramachandran, T. V. and Choubey, V. M. (1997). Measurement of indoor radon levels around Uttar Kashiand Pauri Garhwal areas using nuclear track detectors techniques. Ind. Jour. Envir. Prot.,17 (7): 519-526.
 Rastogi, N. and Singh, I. (2017), Environmental Monitoring of 222Rn Radiations in "Bare Mode" in Moradabad City of Western Uttar Pradesh, India. Ene. Envir. Eng., 5(4): 87-92.
 Rastogi, N. and Singh, I. (2017), Levels of natural radioactivity in environment in residential area of Moradabad District, West. U.P. Pol., 3(1): 1-7.
 Risica, S. (1998). Legislation on Radon Concentration at Home and at Work. Rad. Prot. Dos.  78: 15-21.
 Singh, B. S., Singh, H. S., and Singh, B. A. (2003). A comparative study of indoor radon level measurements in the dwellings of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, India. Radi.Measur.,36: 457–460.
 Sivakumar, R. (2017). Inhalation dose due to radon, thoron, and progenies in dwellings of a hill station. Environ. Mon. and Assess. 189(2): 61.
 Jane, C. T. L., Maria, G. S., Jeffrey, C. G. J., and Siegel, A. (2012). The contribution of fly ash toward indoor radon pollution from concrete. Build. and Env., 56: 276-282.
 Topcu, N., Bicak, D., and Erees, F. S. (2013). Radon exhalation rate from building materials using CR-39 nuclear track detector. Indoor and Built Environment, 22 (2): 384-387.
 UNSCEAR, (2010), Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, annex B: exposure of the public and workers from various sources of radiation. New York: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiations.
 UNSCEAR, (2000), Report to the General Assembly: sources, effects and risks of ionizing   radiation. New York: United Nations.
 UNSCEAR, (2008), United National Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Report to the General Assembly. New York: United Nations.