The Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Tree (Leucaena leucocephala) and Mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium) on Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Nigeria


Greenhouse experiment was conducted for four months using Leucaena leucocephala and Pleurotus tuber-regium to determine their bioremediation potentials. Leucaena leucocephala, Pleurotus tuber-regium and Leucaena leucocephala combined with Pleurotus tuber-regium were tested for their ability to improve nutrient (N, P, K, total organic carbon) and reduce heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu) of soil polluted with spent engine oil [5% (w/v)] and soil without spent engine oil was used as control. Bioaccumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Leucaena leucocephala and Pleurotus tuber-regium were also determined. The highest reduction in Zn, Ni, Pb and Cu (41%, 48.39%, 61.60 and 52.72% respectively) were recorded in soil remediated with Leucaena leucocephala alone, reduction of 30.40%, 26.53%, 48.07% and 39.60% respectively were recorded in soil remediated with Pleurotus tuber-regium alone while in soil remediated with combined Pleurotus tuber-regium and Leucaena leucocephala, reductions of 32.7%, 33.43%, 88.41% and 46.22% respectively were recorded. Bioaccumulation of Zn, Ni, Pb and Cu in Leucaena leucocephala increased by 73.41%, 85.46%, 3366.04% and 125.53% respectively, similarly in Pleurotus tuber-regium by 30.16%, 21.67%, 71.11% and 53.21% respectively. These studies have shown that Pleurotus tuber-regium and Leucaena leucocephala are capable of bioremediating spent engine oil polluted soil although, treatment with Leucaena leucocephala alone tends to be most effective of these treatments.


Adelowo, O. O., Alagbe, S. O. and Ayandele, A. A. (2006) Time-dependent stability of used engine oil degradation by cultures of Pseudomonas fragi and Achromobacter aerogenes. Afr J Biotechnol.5(24), 2476-2479.
Adongbede, E. and Okhuoya, J. A. (2011) Bio-absorption of some heavy metals by Pleurotus tuber-regium Fr. Singer (An edible mushroom) from crude oil polluted soil amended with fertilizer and cellulosic wastes. Int J soil Sci. 6(1), 34-48
Agamuthua, P., Abioyea, O. P., Abdul Aziz A. (2010) Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Jatropha curcas. J Hazard Mater. 179, 891–894
Aganga, A.A, Tshwenyane, S.O. (2003) Lucerne, Lablab and Leucaena leucocephala forages, Production and utilization for livestock production. Pak J Nutr. 2,46–53
Agbogidi, O. M. and Ejemete, O. R. (2005) An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of Gambaya albida (L.), UNISWA Res J Agric Sci Tech. 8(2),148 – 155.
Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M. and Rowland, A.P.  (1986) Chemical Analysis. In, Methods in Plant Ecology, Moore, P.D. and S.B. Chapman (Eds.). 2nd Edn., Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London, pp, 285-344.
Baker, D. E. and Amacher, M. C. (1982) “Nickel, Copper, Zinc and Cadmium,” Methods of Soil Analysis, No. 9, Part II,  Madison, pp. 331-333.
Baladincz, J. Szabo, L. Nagy, G. Hancsok,J. (2008) Possibilities for processing of usedlubricating oils – part 1”, MOL Scientific Magazine, 3, 81-86
Bremner, J.M., (1996) Nitrogen-total. In, Sparks DL (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3 Chemical Methods. Madison, WI, USA, SSSA Inc., ASA Inc, 1085122 Chandra, G., Ghosh, A., Biswas, D. and Chatterjee, S., 2006. Host plant preference of Mansonia mosquitoes. J Aquatic Plant Manage 44, 142–144.
Ekundayo, E. O., Emede, T. O. and Osayande, D. I. (2001). Effects of Crude oil spillage on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of Mid-western Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 56, 313-324.
Fourest, E. and Roux, J. C. (1992) Heavy metals biosorption by fungal mycelia by products, mechanism and influence of pH. Appl Microbiol biot. 37, 399-403.
Fourest, E. and Roux, J.C. (1992). Heavy metal biosorption by fungal mycelial by products, mechanism and influence of pH. Appl Microbiol Biot. 37, 399 – 403.
GarcíaI, Diez M, Martín, F., Simón, M., Dorronsoro, C. (2009) Mobility of arsenic and heavy metals in a sandy-loam textured and carbonated soil. Pedosphere 19, 166–175
Greenberg, B. M. (2006) Development and field test of multi-process phytoremediation system decontamination of soil. Canadian reclamation. Spring/summer (issue). 27-29.
Gupta, M., Kumari, A., Yunus, M. (2000) Effect of fly-ash on metal composition and physiological responses in Leucaena leucocephala (lamk.) de. wit. Environ Monit Assess. 61, 399–406
Isikhuemhen, O. S., Anoliefo, G. O. and Oghale, O. i. (2003) Bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil by while rot fungus, Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Sing. Environ Sci pollut R. 10, 108-112.
Jamil, S., Abhilash, P. C., Singh, N., Sharma, P. N. (2009) Jatropha curcas, a potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly ash. J Hazard Mater. 172, 269–27
Jamilu, E. S., Muhammed, N., Ingvar, B., Oryem-Origa (2017) Phytoremediation potential of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit. For heavy metals polluted and heavy metals degraded environments. Phytoremediation potentials of bioenergy plants. 159-209.
Juson, A. E., Maria-Kariza. M. M., Johnny, A. C. (2016) Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Bougamvillea Spectabilis Willd. Plant systems. J of Exp Biol Agric Sci. ISSN No. 2320-8694
Kalac, P, Svoboda, L. (2000) A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms. Food Chem. 69, 273–281
Karthikeyan, R., Davis, L.C., Mankin, K.R., Erickson, L.E.,  Kulakow, P.A., (1999) Biodegradation of jet fuel (JP-8) in the presence of vegetation, Proceedings of the 1999 Conference on Hazardous Waste Research, St. Louis, MO.  pp. 243–256.
Kayode, j., Olowoyo, O. and Oyedeji, A. (2009). The Effects of Used Engine Oil Pollution on the Growth of Early Seedling Performance of Vigna unguiculta and Zea mays. Res J Soil Biol. 1 (1), 15 – 19
Li, M. S., Luo, Y. P., Su, Z. Y. (2007) Heavy metal concentrations in soils and plant accumulation in a restored manganese mine land in Guangxi, South, China. Environ Pollut. 147, 168–175
Ma, Y., Dickinson, N. M., Wong, M. H. (2006) Beneficial effects of earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on establishment of leguminous shrubs on Pb/Zn mine tailings. Soil Biol Biochem 38, 1403–1412
Mangkoedihardjo, S., Surahmaida, (2008) Jatropha curcas L. for phytoremediation of lead and cadmium polluted soil, World Appl Sci. J. 4 (4), 519–522.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. pp. 539-579. In, A. L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. ASA Monograph Number 9.
Nwite, J. N. and Alu, M. O (2015) Effect of different levels of spent engine oil on soil porperties, grain yield of maize and its heavy metal uptake in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. J Soil Sci Environ Mgt. 5(4), 4451
Ogboghodo, A. E., Inaga, E. K., Osemwota, O., Chokor, J. U. (2004). An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and Growth of maize (Zea mays L.) using two types Forcades light and Escravos light. J Environ Monitor Asses. 96, 142-152
Okonokhua, B. O., Ikhajiagbe, B., Anoliefo, G. O., Emede, J. O. (2007). The effect of spent engine oil on soil  properties and growth of maize (Zea mays L.). J Appl Sci  Environ Mgt 11(3), 147-152
Oyetayo, V.O., Adebayo, A.O., and Ibileye, A. (2012). Assessment of the biosorption potential of heavy metals by Pleurotus tuber-regium. Int J Advanced Biol Res.; 4, 293-297
Peng, S., Zhou, Q., Cai, Z., Zhang, Z. 2009. Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment. J Hazard Mater. 168(2-3), 1490 - 1496
Pilon-Smith, E. (2005) phytoremediation, Annual review of plant biology. 56, 15-39
Pulford, I. D., Watson, C. (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated land by trees-a review. Environ Int 4,529–540
Saraswat, S., Rai, J. P. N. (2011) Prospective application of Leucaena leucocephala for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and nitrogen fixation in metal polluted soils. Int J Phytoremediat. 13(3), 271–288
Tawfik, K. M. (2008) A monitory field study at El Saaf-Helwan faba bean farms irrigated by industrial waste water and polluted water with sewage. J Appl Sci Res. 4, 492–499
Yitao, X.U., Qixian, F., Jixiu, W., Mingrui, L. I., Fangdong, Z., Xiao, Y. (2014) Heavy metal uptake characteristics of three plants grown in lead/zinc mine tailings. Environ Sci Technol. 4(2), 118–138.