Influence of Copper Oxide Nanoparticle on Hematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Caspian Trout (Salmo trutta caspius), Following Acute and Chronic Exposure

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


The Caspian trout is an endangered and quite vulnerable fish, considered for a natural protection program in the southern area of the Caspian Sea. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are toxic substances, which induce oxidative stress, not to mention other pathophysiological states. The toxicity of nanoparticles on fish needs more characterization for short- and long-term effects.  Thus, the present paper examines the acute and chronic effects of CuO-NPs on hematology and plasma biochemistry of juvenile Caspian trout. After determining the lethal concentrations (LC50), juvenile Caspian trout is exposed to 0.1 LC5096 CuO-NPs for 28 days in three replicates. The blood samples are then collected from fish after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of exposure to the CuO-NPsto deal with short- and long-term effects, respectively. Analysis of these samples shows that some hematological factors like hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), and hematocrit (Hct) are significantly increased after acute exposure, compared to the control group (p<0.05). The number of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophilis, and monocytes are also increased after acute and chronic exposure with significant differences (p< 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of lactate dehydrogenase after acute and alkaline phosphatase along with aspartate aminotransferase after acute and chronic exposure are significantly increased (p<0.05). Thus, results indicate that the presence of even a tiny amount of CuO-NPs can affect most haematological and metabolic enzymes of the Caspian trout in the short and long-term exposure. It is therefore essential to prevent these nanomaterials from entering the aquatic environment.


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