The Environmental Strategic Analysis of Oil & Gas Industries in the Kurdistan Region Using PESTLE, SWOT and FDEMATEL

Document Type : Original Research Paper


School of Environment, College of Engineering. University of Tehran, P.O.Box 14155-6135, Tehran, Iran


The need for oil and natural gas as a major source of energy is vital. On the one hand, it has affected the political and economic equations at the international, regional and national level. On the other hand, it has had negative effects on sociocultural, legal, and environmental aspects as well as on the physical and mental health of human beings. Therefore, the need to provide an environmental policy that addresses the various dimensions of the oil and gas industry will be necessary. The present paper aims to set up a conceptual model of environmental policy for sustainable development in the oil and gas industries of the Kurdistan Region through the use of these 6 components: political, economic, sociocultural, technological, legal and environmental. It will also be using the techniques of PESTLE, SWOT, SPACE, FANP, FDEMATEL, and simulation with the VENSIM software. The results show the weights of the criteria respectively are Political; 1.59, Economic; 0.78, Sociocultural; 0.00, Legal; -0.99, Technological; -0.61 and Environmental; -0.70. So that all components are important, but that political and economic factors have a significant influence on environmental policies and oil and gas industries. Sociocultural components have a neutral role and the technological, legal and environmental components are impressible. Finally, fifteen strategies for the formulation of an effective environmental policy in the oil and gas industry were presented.


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