Sustainability of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles Blended Mahua Biodiesel to the Direct Injection Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Analysis

Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, P.O. Box-313601, Rajasthan, India

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, G L Bajaj Institute of Technology and Management, Greater Noida, P.O. Box-201306, UP, India

3 Department of Chemistry, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, P.O. Box-313601, Rajasthan, India

4 Department of Biotechnology, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, P.O. Box-313601, Rajasthan, India


The study investigates the effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles as an additive to Madhuca Indica (mahua) methyl ester blends on performance, emission analysis of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated at a constant speed at different operating conditions. The test fuels are indicated as B10A0.2, B10A0.4, B20A0.2, B20A0.4 and diesel respectively. The results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency for aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel increases slightly when compared to the mineral diesel. The carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emission marginally decrease as compared to mineral diesel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions are minimum for the aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended mahua methyl esters. Higher cylinder gas pressure and heat release rate were observed for aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended mahua methyl ester. From the study, the blending of aluminium oxide nanoparticles in biodiesel blends produces a most promising results in engine performance and also reduces the harmful emission from the engines.


Aalam, C.S. Saravanan, C. Kannan, M. 2015. Experimental investigations on a CRDI system assisted diesel engine fuelled with aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54(3), 351-358.

Abedin, M.J. Masjuki, H.H. Kalam, M.A. Sanjid, A. Rahman, S.M.A. Fattah, I.M.R. 2014. Performance, emissions, and heat losses of palm and jatropha biodiesel blends in a diesel engine. Industrial Crops and Products, 59, 96-104.

Acharya, N. Nanda, P. Panda, S. Acharya, S. 2017. A comparative study of stability characteristics of mahua and jatropha biodiesel and their blends. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences.

Agarwal, D. Kumar, L. Agarwal, A.K. 2008. Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine. Renewable Energy, 33(6), 1147-1156.

Aghbashlo, M. Tabatabaei, M. Khalife, E. Najafi, B. Mirsalim, S.M. Gharehghani, A. Mohammadi, P. Dadak, A. Roodbar Shojaei, T. Khounani, Z. 2017. A novel emulsion fuel containing aqueous nano cerium oxide additive in diesel–biodiesel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions: Part II – Exergetic analysis. Fuel, 205, 262-271.

Akbar, E. Yaakob, Z. Kamarudin, S.K. Ismail, M. Salimon, J. 2009. Characteristic and composition of Jatropha curcas oil seed from Malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock feedstock. European journal of scientific research, 29(3), 396-403.

Al-Hamamre, Z. Al-Salaymeh, A. 2014. Physical properties of (jojoba oil+biodiesel), (jojoba oil+diesel) and (biodiesel+diesel) blends. Fuel, 123, 175-188.

Ali, M.K.A. Xianjun, H. Mai, L. Bicheng, C. Turkson, R.F. Qingping, C. 2016. Reducing frictional power losses and improving the scuffing resistance in automotive engines using hybrid nanomaterials as nano-lubricant additives. Wear, 364-365, 270-281.

Amini, Z. Ilham, Z. Ong, H.C. Mazaheri, H. Chen, W.-H. 2017. State of the art and prospective of lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management, 141, 339-353.

Ashok, B. Nanthagopal, K. Thundil Karuppa Raj, R. Pradeep Bhasker, J. Sakthi Vignesh, D. 2017. Influence of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation of a Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled CI engine. Fuel Processing Technology, 167, 18-30.

Atabani, A.E. Mahlia, T.M.I. Anjum Badruddin, I. Masjuki, H.H. Chong, W.T. Lee, K.T. 2013. Investigation of physical and chemical properties of potential edible and non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production, a comparative analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 21, 749-755.

Atadashi, I.M. Aroua, M.K. Abdul Aziz, A.R. Sulaiman, N.M.N. 2013. The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: A review. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19(1), 14-26.

Azad, A.K. Rasul, M.G. Khan, M.M.K. Sharma, S.C. Islam, R. 2015. Prospect of Moringa Seed Oil as a Sustainable Biodiesel Fuel in Australia: A Review. Procedia Engineering, 105, 601-606.

Basha, J.S. Anand, R. 2012. Effects of nanoparticle additive in the water–diesel emulsion fuel on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 59(2), 164.

Bora, B.J. Saha, U.K. 2016. Experimental evaluation of a rice bran biodiesel–biogas run dual fuel diesel engine at varying compression ratios. Renewable energy, 87, 782-790.

Canakci, M. Ozsezen, A.N. Arcaklioglu, E. Erdil, A. 2009. Prediction of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel produced from waste frying palm oil. Expert systems with Applications, 36(5), 9268-9280.

He, B.-Q. 2016. Advances in emission characteristics of diesel engines using different biodiesel fuels. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 570-586.

Hosseini, S.H. Taghizadeh-Alisaraei, A. Ghobadian, B. Abbaszadeh-Mayvan, A. 2017. Performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with carbon nanotubes and diesel-biodiesel blends. Renewable Energy, 111, 201-213.

Jung, H. Kittelson, D.B. Zachariah, M.R. 2005. The influence of a cerium additive on ultrafine diesel particle emissions and kinetics of oxidation. Combustion and flame, 142(3), 276-288.

Karthikeyan, S. Elango, A. Prathima, A. 2016. The effect of cerium oxide additive on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine operated with rice bran biodiesel and its blends. International Journal of Green Energy, 13(3), 267-273.

Kumar Patel, H. Kumar, S. 2017. Experimental analysis on performance of diesel engine using mixture of diesel and bio-diesel as a working fuel with aluminum oxide nanoparticle additive. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 4, 252-258.

Mehta, R.N. Chakraborty, M. Parikh, P.A. 2014. Nanofuels: Combustion, engine performance and emissions. Fuel, 120, 91-97.

Rao, M.S. Anand, R. 2016. Performance and emission characteristics improvement studies on a biodiesel fuelled DICI engine using water and AlO (OH) nanoparticles. Applied Thermal Engineering, 98, 636-645.

Sadhik Basha, J. Anand, R. 2011. Effects of alumina nanoparticles blended jatropha biodiesel fuel on working characteristics of a diesel engine. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Technology, 2, 53-62.

Sajith, V. Sobhan, C. Peterson, G. 2010. Experimental investigations on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additives on biodiesel. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2, 581407.

Saxena, V. Kumar, N. Saxena, V.K. 2017. A comprehensive review on combustion and stability aspects of metal nanoparticles and its additive effect on diesel and biodiesel fuelled C.I. engine. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 563-588.

Selvan, V.A.M. Anand, R. Udayakumar, M. 2009. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4(7), 1819-6608.

Senthil, M. Visagavel, K. Saravanan, C.G. Rajendran, K. 2016. Investigations of red mud as a catalyst in Mahua oil biodiesel production and its engine performance. Fuel Processing Technology, 149, 7-14.

Singh, Y. Farooq, A. Raza, A. Mahmood, M.A. Jain, S. 2017. Sustainability of a non-edible vegetable oil based bio-lubricant for automotive applications: A review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 111, 701-713.

Vairamuthu, G. Sundarapandian, S. Kailasanathan, C. Thangagiri, B. 2016. Experimental investigation on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle on Calophyllum inophyllum (Punnai) biodiesel blended with diesel fuel in DI diesel engine modified by nozzle geometry. Journal of the Energy Institute, 89(4), 668-682.