Aboh, I. J. K., Ofosu, G. K., Hopke, P. K. and Bamford, S. A. (2012). Characterization of fine particulate sources at Ashaiman in Greater Accra, Ghana. Atmos. Pollut. Rese., 3: 301-310.
Abu-Allaban, M., Gillies, J. A., Gertler, A. W., Clayton, R., Proffitt. D. and Tailpipe, D. (2003). Resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from on-road vehicles. Atmos. Environ. 37: 5283- 5293.
Afzal, S., Abdul, N., Nazeef, U. A., Muhammad, A., Muhammad, Z. and Muhammad S. K. (2011). Comparative study of heavy metals in oil and selected medicinal plants. Res. J. Chem. Environ. 7(4): 71-79.
Awan, M. A., Ahmed, S. H., Aslam, M. R. and Qazi, I. A. (2011). Determination of total suspended particulate matter and heavy metals in ambient air of four cities in Pakistan. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment. 2 (2): 128-132.
Benjamin, A. and Ayatulai-Abdul, M. (2018). Assessment of Inhalable Particular Matter (PM) associated with a cement factory in Tema, Ghana American Journal of Environmental engineering p-ISSN 2166-4633. 8(5): 167-173.
Cocozza, C., Ravera, S., Cherubini, P., Lombardi, F., Marchetti, M. and Tognetti, R. (2016). Integrated biomonitoring of airborne pollutants over space and time using tree rings, bark, leaves and epiphytic lichens. Urban For Green. 17: 177-191.
Danek, M., Bell, T. and Laroque, C. P. (2015). Some considerations in the reconstruction of lead levels using laser ablation: lessons from the design stage of dendrochemistry study, St. John's, Canada. Geochronometria. 42: 217-23.
Elena, C., Daniela, T. A. and Anca, F. G. (2018). Transport infrastructure development, public performance and long-run economic growth; A case study for the Eu-28 countries. Sustainability. Accepted on 22nd December, 2018.
Garg, B. D., Cadle, S. H., Mulawa, P. A., Groblicki, P. J., Laroo, C. and Parr, G. A. (2000).
Edusei, G., et al.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
Brake wear particulate matter emissions. Environ. Sci. Tech. 34: 4463-4469.
Kathie, L. D., Raphael, E., Allison, F. H. and Agyei-Mensah, S. (2010). Air pollution in Accra neighorhoods: Spatial, socio-economic and temporal patterns. Environ. Sci. Tech. 44(7): 2270-2276.
Laura, M., Lothar, R. and Hajo, H. (2010). The essential toxin; Impact of zinc on human health. Int. J. Environ. Res., 7(4): 1342-1365.
Lee, D. S., Pitari, G., Grewe, V., Gierens, K., Penner J. E., Petzold, A., Prather, M. J., Schumann, U., Bais, A., Berntsen, T. and Iachetti, D. (2010). In atmospheric environment transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: The ATTICA Assessment Report. 44(37): 4678-4734.
Lough, G. C., Shauer J. J., Park J. S, and Shafer M. M. (2005). Emission of metals associated with motor vehicles roadways. Environ. Sci and Tech. 39(3): 826-36.
Lough, G. C., Shauer J. J., Park J. S, and Shafer M. M. (2012). Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles. Atmos. Environ. 61: 641-651.
Markert, B. A. (2003). Definitions, strategies and principles for bioindication/biomonitoring of the environment, bioindicators and biomonitors. Elsevier, Oxford. 4: 3-39.
Nerquaye-Tetteh, E. (2009). Urban air quality monitoring programme in Accra. Environmental Protection Agency, Accra, Ghana. (Accessed 2nd October, 2013).
Md Tanvir, H., Md Emadu, H. and Rajada, K. (2017). Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil at DEPZA, Bangladesh. Environ and Ecology Res., 5(7): 510-516.
Odabasi, M., Ozgunerge Falay, E., Tuna, G., Altiok, H., Kara, M., Dumanoglu, Y., Bayram, A., Tolunay, D. and Elbir, T. (2015). Biomonitoring the spatial and historical variations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in an industrial region. Environ. Sci. Tech. 49: 2105-2114.
Oliva, R. S. and Espinosa Fernandez, J. A. (2007). Monitoring of heavy metals in topsoil, atmospheric particle and plant leaves to identify possible contamination sources. Elsevier. Microchemical Journal. 86: 131–139.
O-H, NG., Tan, B. C. and Obbard, J. P. (2005). Lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Singapore. Enivron. Monit. Assess. 123: 63-74.
Palmieri, F., Neri, R., Benco, C. and Serracca, L. (2016). Lichens and moss as bioindicators and bioaccumulator in air pollution monitoring. Air pollution in formation system. J. Environ. 75: 1260.
Pdamo, P., Giordano, S., Vingiani, S. and Violante, P. (2003). Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy). Environ. Pollution. 122: 91-103.
Popescu, C. G. (2011). Relation between vehicle traffic and heavy metals content from the particulate matters. Romanian reports in physics, 63(2): 471–482.
Talebi, S. M. and Tavakoli-Ghinani, T. (2008). Levels of PM10 and its chemical composition in the atmosphere of the city of Isfahan. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 5(3): 62-67.
Vecchi, R., Marcazzan, G. and Valli, G. (2007). A study on nighttime-daytime PM10 concentration and elemental composition in relation to atmospheric dispersion in the urban area of Milan. Atmospheric Environ. 41: 2136–2144.
Wajid, R. Akif, Z. Nayyara, N. and Mohsan, N. (2008). Heavy metal pollution assessment in various industries of Pakistan. Environ Geology. 55: 353–358.
Safo-Adu, G. Ofosu, F. G. Carboo, D. and Armah, Y. S. (2014). Heavy metals and black carbon assessment of PM10 particulates along Accra-Tema Highway in Ghana. Int. J. Sci and Tech. 3(8): 467-474.
Siyan, P. Eremiokhale, R. and Makwe, E. (2015). The impact of road transportation infrastructure on economic growth in Nigeria. International Journal of management and commerce innovations. ISSN 2348-7585. 3(1): 673-680.
Speer, J. (2010). Fundamentals of tree-ring research. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 978: 8165- 2684
Szczepaniak, K and Biziuk, M. (2003). Aspect of the biomonitoring studies using mosses and lichen as indicators of metal pollution. Environ. Res., 93(3): 221-30.
Zaigham, H. Zubair, A. and Khalid U. K. (2012). Civic pollution and its effect on water quality of river Toi at District Kohat. J. Environ. Res., and Earth. Sci. 4: 5.
Yorke, C. K. A. and Omotosho J. B. (2010). Rainfall variability in Ghana during 1961- 2005. Journal of Ghana Science Association. 12 (1): 125.