Carcinogen Risk Assessment of Mutagen X in Chlorinated Drinking Water in West of Tehran, Using Probabilistic Approaches

Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box14176-14411, Tehran, Iran Reference Laboratory of Water and Wastewater, Water and Waste Water Company of Tehran, P.O.Box 14155-1595, Tehran, Iran

2 Social Department of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box 34197-59811, Qazvin, Iran.

3 School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O.Box 14155-6135, Tehran, Iran

4 Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box14176-14411, Tehran, Iran Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box 14176-14411, Tehran, Iran

5 Reference Laboratory of Water and Wastewater, Water and Waste Water Company of Tehran, P.O.Box 14155-1595, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Health Sciences Education Development, School of public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box 14176-13151, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The present study aims at evaluating the risk of Mutagen X (MX) (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone) and adverse health effects, associated with direct ingestion of chlorinated drinking water in west of Tehran, supplied by chlorinated drinking water from surface and underground water sources. For one year, MX concentrations in tap water samples has been measured for consumers in four different zones in western Tehran. It has been found that average MX concentration in the whole study area is 24.16 ng/L, with the highest concentration being in Zone 1 with a value of 38 ng/L. Also, the role of water sources, seasonal changes, and effective factors such as Total Organic Carbon (TOC) have been evaluated on MX formation. The highest of excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), estimated as 0.0037E-05, belongs to Zone 1, which uses surface water to supply drinking water, while the lowest can be seen in Zone 4, being 0.0021E-05. This latter zone utilizes underground water as the water source. In all zones, the highest risk of excessive cancer is related to winter, ranging from 0.0045E-5 in Zone 1 to 0.0023E-5 in Zone 4. The estimated number of cancer cases for Zones 1 to 4 have been 0.012, 0.016, 0.016, and 0.004, respectively, based on their population. The estimated average risk and the number of ELCR, caused by exposure to MX, through direct ingestion of drinking water have been 0.0030E-5 and 0.047, respectively, in the entire studied area for the duration of one year.

Keywords


Albertini, R. J., Anderson, D., Douglas, R. G., Hagmar, L., Hemminki, K., Merlo, F., Natarajan, A.T., Norppa, H., Shuker, D. E. G., Tice, R., Waters, M. D. and Aitio, A. (2000). IPCS guidelines for the monitoring of genotoxic effects of carcinogens in humans. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 463(2), 111-172.
Amy, G., Bull, R., Craun, G. F., Pegram, R., Siddiqui, M. and Organization, W. H. (2000). Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.
Anny, F., Kabir, M., and Bodrud-Doza, M. (2017). Assessment of surface water pollution in urban and industrial areas of Savar Upazila, Bangladesh. Pollution, 3(2), 243-259.
EPA.US (2000). Quantitative cancer assessment for MX.
EPA.US (2003). National primary drinking water standards. In Office of Water (Ed.). Washington, DC,: United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPA.US (2004). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A) 1
Geter, D. R., Winn, R. N., Fournie, J. W., Norris, M. B., DeAngelo, A. B. and Hawkins, W. E. (2004). MX [3-Chloro-4-(Dichloromethyl)-5-Hydroxy-2 [5 H]-Furanone], A Drinking-Water Carcinogen, Does Not Induce Mutations in the Liver of Cii Transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 67(5), 373-383.
Hebert, A., Forestier, D., Lenes, D., Benanou, D., Jacob, S., Arfi, C., Lambolez, L. and Levi, Y. (2010). Innovative method for prioritizing emerging disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water on the basis of their potential impact on public health. Water research, 44(10), 3147-3165.
Hirose, A., Nishikawa, A. and Kinae, N. (1999). 3-Chloro-4-(DichIoromethyl)-5-Hydroxy-2 (5H)-Furanone (MX): Toxicological Properties and Risk Assessment in Drinking Water. Reviews on environmental health, 14(3), 103-120.
Islam, N., Sadiq, R., Rodriguez, M. J. and Legay, C. (2016). Assessing regulatory violations of disinfection by-products in water distribution networks using a non-compliance potential index. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 188(5), 304.
Karyab, H., Yunesian, M., Nasseri, S., Rastkari, N., Mahvi, A. and Nabizadeh, R. (2016). Carcinogen risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water, using probabilistic approaches. Iranian journal of public health, 45(11), 1455.
Komulainen, H., Vaittinen, S.-L., Vartiainen, T., Tuomisto, J., Kosma, V.-M., Kaliste-Korhonen, E., Lötjönen, S. and Tuominen, R, K. (1997). Carcinogenicity of the drinking water mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone in the rat. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89(12), 848-856.
Kubwabo, C., Stewart, B., Gauthier, S. A. and Gauthier, B. R. (2009). Improved derivatization technique for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone in drinking water. Analytica chimica acta, 649(2), 222-229.
Liu, Z.-Q., Shah, A. D., Salhi, E., Bolotin, J. and von Gunten, U. (2018). Formation of brominated trihalomethanes during chlorination or ozonation of natural organic matter extracts and model compounds in saline water. Water research, 143, 492-502.
McDONALD, T. A. and Komulainen, H. (2005). Carcinogenicity of the chlorination disinfection by-product MX. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C, 23(2), 163-214.
Melnick, R. L., Boorman, G. A. and Dellarco, V. (1997). Water chlorination, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone (MX), and potential cancer risk. Oxford University Press.
Bagheban, M., et al.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
480
Ohe, T., Watanabe, T. and Wakabayashi, K. (2004). Mutagens in surface waters: a review. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 567(2-3), 109-149.
Onstad, G. D. and Weinberg, H. S. (2005). Evaluation of the stability and analysis of halogenated furanones in disinfected drinking waters. Analytica chimica acta, 534(2), 281-292.
Organization, W. H. Guidelines for cholera control.
Organization, W. H. (2003). Atrazine in drinking-water: background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization.
Pardakhti, A. R., Bidhendi, G. R. N., Torabian, A., Karbassi, A. and Yunesian, M. (2011). Comparative cancer risk assessment of THMs in drinking water from well water sources and surface water sources. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 179(1-4), 499-507.
Richardson, S. D., Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Schoeny, R. and DeMarini, D. M. (2007). Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 636(1-3), 178-242.
Sadiq, R. and Rodriguez, M. J. (2004). Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water and predictive models for their occurrence: a review. Science of the total environment, 321(1-3), 21-46.
Salam, M. and Varma, A. (2019). A Review on Impact of E-waste on Soil Microbial Community and Ecosystem Function. Pollution, 5(4), 761-774.
SCI, S. c. o. i., Tehran, Iran (2016).
Smith, R. B., Bennett, J. E., Rantakokko, P., Martinez, D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. and Toledano, M. B. (2015). The relationship between MX [3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone], routinely monitored trihalomethanes, and other characteristics in drinking water in a long-term survey. Environmental science and technology, 49(11), 6485-6493.
TPWWC, T. p. w. a. w. c. (2019). 2015.
Ward, W. O., Swartz, C. D., Hanley, N. M., Whitaker, J. W., Franzén, R. and DeMarini, D. M. (2010). Mutagen structure and transcriptional response: Induction of distinct transcriptional profiles in Salmonella TA100 by the drinking‐water mutagen MX and its homologues. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 51(1), 69-79.
Wright, J. M., Schwartz, J., Vartiainen, T., Mäki-Paakkanen, J., Altshul, L., Harrington, J. J. and Dockery, D. W. (2002). 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water. Environmental health perspectives, 110(2), 157-164.
Zhuo, C., Chengyong, Y., Junhe, L., Huixian, Z. and Jinqi, Z. (2001). Factors on the formation of disinfection by-products MX, DCA and TCA by chlorination of fulvic acid from lake sediments. Chemosphere, 45(3), 379-385.
Albertini, R. J., Anderson, D., Douglas, R. G., Hagmar, L., Hemminki, K., Merlo, F., Natarajan, A.T., Norppa, H., Shuker, D. E. G., Tice, R., Waters, M. D. and Aitio, A. (2000). IPCS guidelines for the monitoring of genotoxic effects of carcinogens in humans. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 463(2), 111-172.
Amy, G., Bull, R., Craun, G. F., Pegram, R., Siddiqui, M. and Organization, W. H. (2000). Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.
Anny, F., Kabir, M., and Bodrud-Doza, M. (2017). Assessment of surface water pollution in urban and industrial areas of Savar Upazila, Bangladesh. Pollution, 3(2), 243-259.
EPA.US (2000). Quantitative cancer assessment for MX.
EPA.US (2003). National primary drinking water standards. In Office of Water (Ed.). Washington, DC,: United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPA.US (2004). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A) 1
Geter, D. R., Winn, R. N., Fournie, J. W., Norris, M. B., DeAngelo, A. B. and Hawkins, W. E. (2004). MX [3-Chloro-4-(Dichloromethyl)-5-Hydroxy-2 [5 H]-Furanone], A Drinking-Water Carcinogen, Does Not Induce Mutations in the Liver of Cii Transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 67(5), 373-383.
Hebert, A., Forestier, D., Lenes, D., Benanou, D., Jacob, S., Arfi, C., Lambolez, L. and Levi, Y. (2010). Innovative method for prioritizing emerging disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water on the basis of their potential impact on public health. Water research, 44(10), 3147-3165.
Hirose, A., Nishikawa, A. and Kinae, N. (1999). 3-Chloro-4-(DichIoromethyl)-5-Hydroxy-2 (5H)-Furanone (MX): Toxicological Properties and Risk Assessment in Drinking Water. Reviews on environmental health, 14(3), 103-120.
Islam, N., Sadiq, R., Rodriguez, M. J. and Legay, C. (2016). Assessing regulatory violations of disinfection by-products in water distribution networks using a non-compliance potential index. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 188(5), 304.
Karyab, H., Yunesian, M., Nasseri, S., Rastkari, N., Mahvi, A. and Nabizadeh, R. (2016). Carcinogen risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water, using probabilistic approaches. Iranian journal of public health, 45(11), 1455.
Komulainen, H., Vaittinen, S.-L., Vartiainen, T., Tuomisto, J., Kosma, V.-M., Kaliste-Korhonen, E., Lötjönen, S. and Tuominen, R, K. (1997). Carcinogenicity of the drinking water mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone in the rat. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89(12), 848-856.
Kubwabo, C., Stewart, B., Gauthier, S. A. and Gauthier, B. R. (2009). Improved derivatization technique for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone in drinking water. Analytica chimica acta, 649(2), 222-229.
Liu, Z.-Q., Shah, A. D., Salhi, E., Bolotin, J. and von Gunten, U. (2018). Formation of brominated trihalomethanes during chlorination or ozonation of natural organic matter extracts and model compounds in saline water. Water research, 143, 492-502.
McDONALD, T. A. and Komulainen, H. (2005). Carcinogenicity of the chlorination disinfection by-product MX. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C, 23(2), 163-214.
Melnick, R. L., Boorman, G. A. and Dellarco, V. (1997). Water chlorination, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone (MX), and potential cancer risk. Oxford University Press.
Bagheban, M., et al.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
480
Ohe, T., Watanabe, T. and Wakabayashi, K. (2004). Mutagens in surface waters: a review. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 567(2-3), 109-149.
Onstad, G. D. and Weinberg, H. S. (2005). Evaluation of the stability and analysis of halogenated furanones in disinfected drinking waters. Analytica chimica acta, 534(2), 281-292.
Organization, W. H. Guidelines for cholera control.
Organization, W. H. (2003). Atrazine in drinking-water: background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization.
Pardakhti, A. R., Bidhendi, G. R. N., Torabian, A., Karbassi, A. and Yunesian, M. (2011). Comparative cancer risk assessment of THMs in drinking water from well water sources and surface water sources. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 179(1-4), 499-507.
Richardson, S. D., Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Schoeny, R. and DeMarini, D. M. (2007). Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 636(1-3), 178-242.
Sadiq, R. and Rodriguez, M. J. (2004). Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water and predictive models for their occurrence: a review. Science of the total environment, 321(1-3), 21-46.
Salam, M. and Varma, A. (2019). A Review on Impact of E-waste on Soil Microbial Community and Ecosystem Function. Pollution, 5(4), 761-774.
SCI, S. c. o. i., Tehran, Iran (2016).
Smith, R. B., Bennett, J. E., Rantakokko, P., Martinez, D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. and Toledano, M. B. (2015). The relationship between MX [3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone], routinely monitored trihalomethanes, and other characteristics in drinking water in a long-term survey. Environmental science and technology, 49(11), 6485-6493.
TPWWC, T. p. w. a. w. c. (2019). 2015.
Ward, W. O., Swartz, C. D., Hanley, N. M., Whitaker, J. W., Franzén, R. and DeMarini, D. M. (2010). Mutagen structure and transcriptional response: Induction of distinct transcriptional profiles in Salmonella TA100 by the drinking‐water mutagen MX and its homologues. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 51(1), 69-79.
Wright, J. M., Schwartz, J., Vartiainen, T., Mäki-Paakkanen, J., Altshul, L., Harrington, J. J. and Dockery, D. W. (2002). 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2 (5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water. Environmental health perspectives, 110(2), 157-164.
Zhuo, C., Chengyong, Y., Junhe, L., Huixian, Z. and Jinqi, Z. (2001). Factors on the formation of disinfection by-products MX, DCA and TCA by chlorination of fulvic acid from lake sediments. Chemosphere, 45(3), 379-385.