Levels of Fine Particulate Matter Bound Trace Metals in Air of Glass Industrial Area; Firozabad

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Chemistry, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra, 282002, India


The present study deals with sequential extraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) bound trace metals in an industrial area of Firozabad, India. During the study period, daily PM2.5 concentration ranged between 73.49 μg/m3 and 113.26 μg/m3 with poor air quality index of 196.37. In the present study, Ca recorded the highest while Co had the lowest concentration among all analysed metals. Mn, Ni, Pb, Co, and Cu had high bioavailability (34.80%-65.80%) than other elements. Cd, Pb, and Cu were found to be highly enriched (EF> 289-6516) by varied anthropogenic activities. Hazard Quotient (HQ) for Ni, Mn, and Cr and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) of Cr(VI) and Ni exceeded the respective safer limit (HQ>1 and ELCR≥ 10-6), thus implying serious risk to the receptors. All the metals had the highest concentration in less mobile and residual fraction except for Ni and Co, which inferred greater risk due to their high toxicity. Overall, the results present exposure and risk assessment of metal associated particles; that provides in-depth knowledge of the risk factors through inhalation exposure pathway of particles associated with industrial environment.


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Kalpana Rajouriya is a M.Phil. scholar in the Department of Chemistry, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra. She is working under the supervision Prof. Ajay Taneja for her degree. Her work is focused on industrial air pollution and to find out its impact on human being health.
Himanshi Rohra is Ph.D. scholar under the supervision of Prof Ajay Taneja and is working on chemical characterization of size segregated Particulate Matter and its effect on human health.
Ajay Taneja* is a Professor of chemistry in Dr B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra. His research interest is in environmental chemistry and indoor air pollution.