A Regression-Based Analysis to Assess the Impact of Fluoride Reach River Water on the Groundwater Aquifer Adjacent to the River: A Case Study in Bharalu River Basin of Guwahati, India

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam, India


Fluoride is one of the parameters which is non-degradable and naturally occurring inorganic anion found in many natural streams, lakes, and groundwater. Serious problems are faced in several parts of India due to the high consumption of fluoride through drinking water. These may cause dental and skeletal fluorosis to humans. This study aims to examine the level of fluoride in both Bharalu river water and groundwater within Guwahati city, Assam, India, and also to analyze the impact of fluoride reach river water on the groundwater aquifer adjacent to the river. From the investigation, it has been observed that the concentration of fluoride varies from 0.02 to 3.73 mg/l in river water and 0.04 to 4.7 mg/l in the case of groundwater. The statistical analysis shows that there is a strong correlation between the fluoride concentration of river water and groundwater. This indicates that the groundwater might have contaminated by the polluted river water.


Adimalla, N., Vasa, SK. and Li, P. (2018a). Evaluation of groundwater quality, Peddavagu in Central Telangana (PCT), South India: an insight of controlling factors of fluoride enrichment model. Earth Syst Environ., 4(2); 841–852.
Adimalla, N., Venkatayogi, S. and Das, S.V.G. (2019). Assessment of fluoride contamination and distribution: a case study from a rural part of Andhra Pradesh, India. Appl Water Sci., 9; 94.
Ali, S., Shekhar, S., Bhattacharya, P., Verma, G., Gurav, T. and Chandrashekhar, A.K. (2018). Elevated fluoride in groundwater of Siwani Block, Western Haryana, India: a potential concern for sustainable water supplies for drinking and irrigation. Groundwater Sustain. Dev., 7; 410-420.
Amini, H., Haghighat, G.A., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., Mahvi, A.H., Dehghani, M.H., Davani, R., Aminian, A.R., Shamsipour, M., Hassanzadeh, N., Faramarzi, H. and Mesdaghinia, A. (2016). Spatial and temporal variability of fluoride concentrations in groundwater resources of Larestan and Gerash regions in Iran from 2003 to 2010. Environ. Geochem. Health., 38 (1); 25-37.
APHA (1995). Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater. 19 Edition, American Public Health Association Inc., New York.
Ayoob, S. and Gupta, A. K. (2006). Fluoride in drinking water: a review on the status and stress effects. Critical Rev Environ Sci Technol., 36; 433–487.
Battaleb-Looie, S., Moore, F., Jafari, H., Jacks, G. and Ozsvath, D. (2012a). Hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters with excess fluoride concentrations from Dashtestan, South of Iran. Environ Earth Sci., 67; 1173–1182.
Borah, R., Das, P. K. and Bhattacharyya, K. G. (2001). Studies on interaction between surface and groundwater at Guwahati, Assam (India). J Environ Pollut., 8(4), 361-369.
Borah, K.K., Bhuyan, B. and Sarma, H.P. (2010). Lead, arsenic, fluoride, and iron contamination of drinking water in the tea garden belt of Darrang district, Assam, India. Environ Monit Assess., 169; 347–352.
Borah, L. and Dey, N.C. (2009). Removal of fluoride from low TDS water using low grade coal. Indian J. Chem. Technol., 16; 361-363.
Brouwer, ID., De Brwin, A., Dirka, OA. and Hautvast, J. (1988). Unsuitability of WHO guidelines for fluoride concentration in drinking water in Senegal. Lancet I: 223–225
Buragohain, M., Bhuyan, B. and Sharma, HP. (2008). Fluoride, arsenic and iron in groundwater of Dhemaji district Assam. Environ Spectra., 3; 6–15.
Bureau of Indian Standards, Indian Standards (IS:10500:2012). (2004). Drinking water Specification: New Delhi.
Chakraborty, S., Deka, J. and Sharma, HP. (2009). Fluoride in drinking water of Guwahati city: a plan for effective removal techniques. Poll Res., 28(1); 97–100.
Das, B., Talukdar, J., Sharma, S., Gohain, B., Dutta, RK., Das, H. and Das, SC. (2003). Fluoride and other inorganic constituents in groundwater of Guwahati, Assam. Fluoride., 85; 657–661.
Dissanayake, CB. (1991). The fluoride problem in the ground water of Sri Lanka—environmental management and health. Int J Environ Stud., 38(2–3); 137–155.
Dutta, RK., Saikia, G., Das, B., Bezbaruah, C., Das, HB. and Dube, SN. (2006). Fluoride contamination in groundwater of Central Assam, India. Asian J Water Environ Pollut., 3; 93–100.
Farooqi, A., Masuda, H. and Firdous, N. (2007). Toxic fluoride and arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Lahore and Kasur districts, Punjab, Pakistan and possible contaminant source. J Environ Pollut., 145; 839–849.
Gikinju, JK., Simiyu, KW., Gathura, PB., Kyule, M. and Kanja, LW. (2002). River water fluoride in Kenya. Res Rep., 35(3); 193–196.
Pollution, 6(3): 637-650, Summer 2020
Girija, T.R., Mahanta, C. and Chandramouli, V. (2007). Water Quality Assessment of an Untreated Effluent Impacted Urban Stream: The Bharalu Tributary of the Brahmaputra River, India. Environ Monit Assess., 130; 221–236.
Hussain, K., Balachandran, S. and Hoque, R. R. (2015). Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Bharalu River, a tributary of the River Brahmaputra in Guwahati, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., 22; 61-67.
Kakoty, P., Barooah, PK., Baruah, MK., Goswami, A., Borah, GC., Gogoi, HM., Ahmed, F., Gogoi, A. and Paul, AB. (2008). Fluoride and endemic fluorosis in Karbianglong district of Assam, India. Fluoride., 41; 42–45.
Kundu, N., Panigrahi, MK., Tripathy, S., Munshi, S., Powell, MA. and Hart, BR. (2001). Geochemical appraisal of fluoride contamination of groundwater in Nayagarh District of Orissa. Indian Environ Geol., 41; 451–460.
Mamatha, P. and Rao, SM. (2010). Geochemistry of fluoride rich groundwater in Kolar and Tumkur Districts of Karnataka. Environ Earth Sci., 61; 131–142.
Mishra, A. (2010). Assessment of water quality using principal component analysis: A case study of the river Ganges. J. Water Chem. Technol., 32; 227–234.
Mondal, P., Reichelt-Brushett, A.J., Jonathan, M.P. Sujitha S. B. and Sarkar S. K. (2018) Pollution evaluation of total and acid-leachable trace elements in surface sediments of Hooghly River Estuary and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland (India). Environ Sci Pollut Res., 25; 5681–5699.
Muralidharan, D., Nair, AP. and Sathyanarayana, U. (2002). Fluoride in shallow aquifers in Rajgarh Tehsil of Churu district, Rajasthan. Current Sci., 83; 699–702.
Narsimha, A. and Sudarshan, V. (2017a). Assessment of fluoride contamination in groundwater from Basara, Adilabad District, Telangana State, India. Appl Water Sci., 7(6); 2717–2725.
Rafique, T., Naseem, S., Usmani, TH., Bashir, E., Khan, FA. and Bhanger, MI. (2009). Geochemical factors controlling the occurrence of high fluoride groundwater in the Nagar Parkar area, Sindh, Pakistan. J Hazard Mater., 171; 424–430.
Rao, NS. (2008). Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess., 152; 47–60.
Rao, NS., Rao, PS., Dinakar, A., Rao, PVN. and Marghade, D. (2017). Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Appl Water Sci., 7(3); 1467–1478.
Rosso, JJ., Puntoriero, ML., Troncoso, JJ., Volpedo, AV. and Cirelli, AF. (2011). Occurrence of fluoride in arsenic-rich surface waters: a case study in the Pampa Plain, Argentina. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., 87; 409–413.
Sánchez, A., Wu, W., Beck, T., Li, H., Rosati, J., Demirbilek, Z. and Brown, M. (2012). Verification and Validation of the Coastal Modeling System Report 4, CMS-Flow: Sediment Transport and Morphology Change Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory.
Sarma, HP. and Bhattacharyya, KG. (1999). Nitrate and Fluoride content in drinking water of Darrang district, Assam. J Assam Sci Soc., 40; 126–134.
Sekhar C, Umamahesh N. V. (2004). Mass balance approach for assessment of pollution load in the Krishna River. J Environ Sci Eng., 46(2); 159-171.
Sharma, C. (2005) The pattern and problem of road transport in the city of Guwahati: a geographical analysis. Dissertation, Gauhati University
Sharma, P., Sarma, H.P. and Mahanta, C. (2012). Evaluation of groundwater quality with emphasis on fluoride concentration in Nalbari district, Assam, Northeast India. Environ Earth Sci., 65; 2147–2159.
Shivashankara, A.R., Shankara, Y.M.S., Rao, S.H. and Bhat, P.G. (2000). A clinical and biochemical study of chronic fluoride toxicity in children of Kheru Thanda of Gulbarga district, Karnataka, India. Fluoride., 33 (2); 66-73.
Shah, B.A., Shah, A.V., Mistry, C.B. and Navik, A. J. (2013). Assessment of heavy metals in sediments near Hazira industrial zone at Tapti River estuary, Surat, India. Environ Earth Sci., 69; 2365–2376.
Singh, M. (2001). Heavy metal pollution in freshly deposited sediments of the Yamuna River (the Ganges River tributary): a case study from Delhi and Agra urban centres, India. Environ Geol., 40; 664–671.
Sundaray, S.K. (2010). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in hydrogeochemical studies—a case study: Brahmani–Koel River (India). Environ Monit Assess., 164; 297–310.
Tohyama, E. (1996). Relation between fluoride concentration in drinking water and mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa a prefecture, Japan. J Epidemial., 6; 184–191.
Valenzuela-Vásquez, L., Ramírez-Hernández, J., Reyes-López, J., Sol-Uribe, A. and Lázaro-Mancilla, O. (2006). The origin of fluoride in
Das, M. and Bhattacharjya, R.K.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
groundwater supply to Hermosillo City, Sonora, México. Environ Geol., 51; 17–27.
World Health Organisation Guidelines for drinking water quality (2004). Fluoride in drinking water: update of the background document published in the second edition of the Guidelines.
Wu, J., Li, P. and Qian, H. (2015). Hydrochemical characterization of drinking groundwater with special reference to fluoride in an arid area of China and the control of aquifer leakage on its concentrations. Environ Earth Sci., 73(12); 8575–8588.
Yang, C.Y., Cheng, M.F., Tsai, S.S. and Hung, C.F. (2000). Fluoride in drinking water and cancer mortality in Taiwan. Environ Res., 82; 189–193.