Effect of Composting Process on Some Chemical-Biological Properties and Heavy Metals Behavior of Municipal Sewage Sludge as Affected by Various Bulking Agents

Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Environment, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural, Factually of agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

4 Soil and Water Research Department, Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

The present study tries to investigate the effect of composting process on some properties and heavy metals status of two municipal sewage sludge (MSS) as affected by three different organic bulking agents (BAs) at three levels (10%, 25%, and 45% V/V). According to the results, the composting process could reduce the fecal coliform to class A, a reduction more obvious in treatments with BAs than produced composts without them. Changes in the chemical properties of the composts vary according to the type of MSS and Bas. Based on the compost quality standard, most of the produced samples are classified in compost-class II. Examination of the total form of three heavy metals (HMs: Zn, Ni, Fe) of both MSS shows that composting process without BAs increases the HMs total concentration, but using of BAs have not been clear trends. In the contrary, BAs application reduced the available form of Fe and Ni, but increased the Zn available form. Examination of chemical forms of each studied HMs also shows that the composting process reduces the Ni and Fe mobility factor, but increases that of Zn. Generally, while, prepared composts can classify into the compost-class II, based on their properties, the high concentration of total Zn above the standard limit makes it extremely restrictive to be used as class II compost. However, according to EPA regulations, the composts with this concentration of Zn can be used as a relatively safe organic material on agricultural land.

Keywords


Adhikari, B. K., Barrington, S., Martinez, J. and King, S. (2009). Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting. Waste Manage., 29(1); 197-203.
Banegas, V., Moreno, J., Moreno, J., Garcia, C., Leon, G. and Hernandez, T. (2007). Composting anaerobic and aerobic sewage sludges using two proportions of sawdust. Waste Manage., 27(10); 1317-1327.
Brunner, P.H. and Wasmer, H.R. (1978). Methods of analysis of sewage sludge solid wastes and compost.W.H.O. International Reference Center for Wastes Disposal (H-8600), Dulendr of Switzerland.
Bustamante, M., Moral, R., Paredes, C., Vargas-García, M., Suárez-Estrella, F. and Moreno, J. (2008). Evolution of the pathogen content during co-composting of winery and distillery wastes. Bioresour. Technol., 99(15); 7299-7306.
Cai, Q. Y., Mo, C. H., Wu, Q. T., Zeng, Q. Y. and Katsoyiannis, A. (2007). Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in six different sewage sludge-composts. J. Hazard. Mater., 147(3); 1063-1072.
Černe, M., Palčić, I., Pasković, I., Major, N., Romić, M., Filipović, V. and Zorko, B. (2019). The effect of stabilization on the utilization of municipal sewage sludge as a soil amendment. Waste Manage., 94; 27-38.
Chi, X., Li, A., Li, M., Ma, L., Tang, Y., Hu, B. and Yang, J. (2018). Influent characteristics affect biodiesel production from waste sludge in biological wastewater treatment systems. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 132; 226-235.
Chiang, K. Y., Huang, H. J. and Chang, C. N. (2007). Enhancement of heavy metal stabilization by different amendments during sewage sludge composting process. J. Environ. Eng. Manag., 17(4); 249.
Chiang, K. Y., Yoi, S. D., Lin, H. and Wang, K. S. (2001). Stabilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge composting process. Water Sci. Technol., 44(10); 95-100.
Chu, S., Wu, D., Liang, L. L., Zhong, F., Hu, Y., Hu, X. and Zeng, S. (2017). Municipal sewage sludge compost promotes Mangifera persiciforma tree growth with no risk of heavy metal contamination of soil. Sci. Rep., 7(1); 13408.
Diaz, L. F., De Bertoldi, M. and Bidlingmaier, W. (2011). Compost science and technology (Vol. 8): Elsevier.
Eftoda, G. and McCartney, D. (2004). Determining the critical bulking agent requirement for municipal biosolids composting. Compost Sci. Util., 12(3); 208-218.
Eneji, A. E., Honna, T., Yamamoto, S., Masuda, T., Endo, T. and Irshad, M. (2003). The relationship between total and available heavy metals in composted manure. J. Sustain. Agr., 23(1); 125-134.
EPA. (1994). Land application of sewage sludge. A guide for land appliers on the requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR Part 503.
Fuentes, A., Llorens, M., Saez, J., Aguilar, M. I., Pérez-Marín, A. B., Ortuno, J. F. and Meseguer, V. F. (2006). Ecotoxicity, phytotoxicity and extractability of heavy metals from different stabilised sewage sludges. Environ. Pollut., 143(2); 355-360.
Gao, H., Zhou, C., Wang, R. and Li, X. (2015). Comparison and evaluation of co-composting corn stalk or rice husk with swine waste in China. Waste Biomass Valori., 6(5); 699-710.
Grigatti, M., Cavani, L. and Ciavatta, C. (2011). The evaluation of stability during the composting of different starting materials: Comparison of chemical and biological parameters. Chemosphere., 83(1); 41-48.
Gunadi, B., Blount, C. and Edwards, C. A. (2002). The growth and fecundity of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) in cattle solids pre-composted for different periods. Pedobiologia., 46(1); 15-23.
Saffari, M., et al.
678
Hanc, A., Szakova, J. and Svehla, P. (2012). Effect of composting on the mobility of arsenic, chromium and nickel contained in kitchen and garden waste. Bioresour. Technol., 126, 444-452.
Hassen, A., Belguith, K., Jedidi, N., Cherif, A., Cherif, M. and Boudabous, A. (2001). Microbial characterization during composting of municipal solid waste. Bioresour. Technol., 80(3); 217-225.
Haug, R. (2018). The practical handbook of compost engineering: Routledge.
Hernández, T., Masciandaro, G., Moreno, J. and García, C. (2006). Changes in organic matter composition during composting of two digested sewage sludges. Waste Manage., 26(12); 1370-1376.
Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Compost Sampling and Physical and Chemical Test Methods. 1st. Edition, Standard Number: 13320 . Tehran: 2011. Available at: http://www.isiri.org/portal/files/std/13320.PDF. Accessed Jun 26, 2014 (Persian).
Iqbal, M. K., Shafiq, T. and Ahmed, K. (2010). Characterization of bulking agents and its effects on physical properties of compost. Bioresour. Technol., 101(6); 1913-1919.
Ishii, K., Fukui, M. and Takii, S. (2000). Microbial succession during a composting process as evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. J. Appl. Microbiol., 89(5); 768-777.
Jaafarzadeh Haghighifard, N., Abbasi, N., Aalivar Babadi, M., Bohrani, R. and Mirzayi Zadeh, H. (2015). Co-com- post green waste and dehydrated sludge, wastewater treatment plant at West Ahvaz. J. Soil Water Sci. Techno. Agri. Natur. Resour., 19(71); 205-16.
Kacprzak, M., Neczaj, E., Fijałkowski, K., Grobelak, A., Grosser, A., Worwag, M. and Singh, B. R. (2017). Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development. Environ. Res., 156, 39-46.
Khalil, A., Hassouna, M., El-Ashqar, H. and Fawzi, M. (2011). Changes in physical, chemical and microbial parameters during the composting of municipal sewage sludge. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 27(10); 2359-2369.
Liang, Z., Peng, X. and Luan, Z. (2012). Immobilization of Cd, Zn and Pb in sewage sludge using red mud. Environ. Earth. Sci., 66(5); 1321-1328.
Malakootian, M., Mobini, M. and Nekoonam, G.A. (2014). Evaluation of the compost produced from mixed sludge of municipal wastewater treatment plant and pistachio hull waste. J. Mazand. Univ. Med. Sci., 24; 172-183.
Moretti, S. M. L., Bertoncini, E. I. and Abreu-Junior, C. H. (2015). Composting sewage sludge with green waste from tree pruning. Sci. Agric., 72(5); 432-439. Nafez, A. H., Nikaeen, M., Kadkhodaie, S., Hatamzadeh, M. and Moghim, S. (2015). Sewage sludge composting: quality assessment for agricultural application. Environ. Monit. Assess., 187(11); 709.
Nomeda, S., Valdas, P., Chen, S. Y. and Lin, J. G. (2008). Variations of metal distribution in sewage sludge composting. Waste Manage., 28(9); 1637-1644.
Partanen, P., Hultman, J., Paulin, L., Auvinen, P. and Romantschuk, M. (2010). Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process. BMC microbiol., 10(1); 94.
Roca-Pérez, L., Martínez, C., Marcilla, P. and Boluda, R. (2009). Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil–plant system. Chemosphere., 75(6); 781-787.
Ruggieri, L., Gea, T., Artola, A. and Sánchez, A. (2009). Air filled porosity measurements by air pycnometry in the composting process: a review and a correlation analysis. Bioresour. Technol., 100(10); 2655-2666.
Samaras, P., Papadimitriou, C., Haritou, I. and Zouboulis, A. (2008). Investigation of sewage sludge stabilization potential by the addition of fly ash and lime. J. Hazard. Mater., 154(1-3); 1052-1059.
Tandy, S., Healey, J., Nason, M., Williamson, J. and Jones, D. (2009). Heavy metal fractionation during the co-composting of biosolids, deinking paper fibre and green waste. Bioresour. Technol., 100(18); 4220-4226.
Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. and Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem., 51(7); 844-851.
Tønner-Klank, L., Møller, J., Forslund, A. and Dalsgaard, A. (2007). Microbiological assessments of compost toilets: in situ measurements and laboratory studies on the survival of fecal microbial indicators using sentinel chambers. Waste Manage., 27(9); 1144-1154.
Udayanga, W. C., Veksha, A., Giannis, A., Lisak, G., Chang, V. W. C. and Lim, T. T. (2018). Fate and distribution of heavy metals during thermal processing of sewage sludge. Fuel., 226; 721-744.
Vinnerås, B. and Jönsson, H. (2002). The performance and potential of faecal separation and
Pollution, 6(3): 661-679, Summer 2020
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
679
urine diversion to recycle plant nutrients in household wastewater. Bioresour. Technol., 84(3); 275-282.
Wang, K., Mao, H. and Li, X. (2018). Functional characteristics and influence factors of microbial community in sewage sludge composting with inorganic bulking agent. Bioresour. Technol., 249, 527-535.
Weng, H. X., Ma, X. W., Fu, F. X., Zhang, J. J., Liu, Z., Tian, L. X. and Liu, C. (2014). Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights. J. Hazard. Mater., 265, 96-103.
Wong, J., Mak, K., Chan, N., Lam, A., Fang, M., Zhou, L. and Liao, X. (2001). Co-composting of soybean residues and leaves in Hong Kong. Bioresour. Technol., 76(2); 99-106.
Zheng, G. D., Gao, D., Chen, T. B. and Luo, W. (2007). Stabilization of nickel and chromium in sewage sludge during aerobic composting. J. Hazard. Mater., 142(1-2); 216-221.
Zheng, G., Chen, T., Gao, D. and Luo, W. (2004). Dynamic of lead speciation in sewage sludge composting. ater Sci. Technol., 50(9); 75-82.
Zorpas, A. A., Inglezakis, V. J. and Loizidou, M. (2008). Heavy metals fractionation before, during and after composting of sewage sludge with natural zeolite. Waste Manage., 28(11); 2054-2060.