Evaluating the Accumulation and Consumption Hazard Risk of Heavy Metals in the Fish Muscles of Species Living in the Waters of the Persian Gulf, Iran

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Biology, Faculty of Marine Biology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O.Box 46817, Tonekabon, Iran


The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, and Cr in the edible part of eleven most consumed fish species collected from the north-east coast of Persian Gulf, Iran, during 2017. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) instrument was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals. The results were compared within acceptable limits for human consumption set by various health institutions. The order of heavy metals about total accumulation was Cr>As>Pb> Cd> Hg. The mean heavy metals concentrations of fish species muscle decreased in the order of Acanthopagrus latus> Planiliza subviridis> Lutjanus lemniscatus > Alectis indica> Epinephelus areolatus> Otolithes ruber> Epinephelus chlorostigma> Lethrinus crocineus> Euryglossa orientalis > Cynoglossus arel > Grammoplites suppositus. Probably the difference in the concentration of metals between samples depends on fish species, diet, and habitat. These species were declared to exhibit a low probability of causing non-cancerous diseases. The comparison of the accumulation and hazard risk of consuming the five heavy metals existing in the eleven species that were sampled from the coasts of Khuzestan, Maah-shar Harbour, with the WHO and USEPA guidelines showed that although consuming these fish species does not threaten the consumers' health, pregnant women and children should be cautious about consuming them. The HI was calculated for 70 kg body weight of adults and 14.5 kg body weight of children. The amount of optimal consumption is different for different weights of consumers.


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