Investigation of Atmospheric Pattern and Simulation of the Frontal Sandstorm Emission over Eastern and Southeastern Iran (case study 23 & 24 April 2019)

Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Department of Earth Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, P.O.Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Air Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Science & Meteorogical Research Center, P.O.Box 14965-114, Tehran, Iran


The present study simulates the frontal dust storm by means of WRF-Chem model and AFWA emission scheme between April 23 and 24, 2019. It then applies reanalysis data (ERA5) to analyze this case from a synoptic perspective. The simulation results show that the model have been accurately characterized first by the onset of dust from the south-east of the country in Kerman Province and then via its transmission to large areas of the east and south-east. The model output also fits well with satellite images. A quantitative comparison of PM10 concentration of the model with actual values shows that the PM10 model estimates are larger than actual values, though it predicts the trend of concentration changes well. Examining the synoptic maps, the isobars’ curve, wind direction change, and temperature advection in the area reveals the presence of atmospheric fronts within a strong dynamic low-pressure system. This causes high temperature and pressure gradients, in turn speeding up the wind within the region. Results from the synoptic analysis show that by passing the frontal system and behind the cold front, a dust mass is formed, which gradually spreads in eastern and the southeastern regions of Iran. In this case, extreme pressure gradient, cold front passage, low-level jet, wind gust on dry areas of dry Hamoon wetland, and cold air advection over flat area of the Lut Desert are important factors in storm formation and emission, east of the country.


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