Analysis of heavy metal concentration in some vegetables using atomic absorption spectroscopy

Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 1. Department of Physics, College of Natural & Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2. Department of Physics, College of Natural & Computational Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

2 Department of Physics, College of Natural & Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abstract

This study assesses heavy metal levels in water, soil, and vegetables (swiss chard, lettuce, cabbage, collard green, tomato, green pepper and carrot) irrigated with waste water in Gamo, Ethiopia. The samples of soils, water, and vegetables were randomly collected, processed, and analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained show that the irrigational water is profoundly contaminated with heavy metals Cd, Cr and Ni and Pb, Zn and Cu had the lowest concentration in irrigation water. The levels of Cd in Kulfo river area and Chamo Lake area and Ni in most of the farm soils were also found to be higher than the guideline values. The study also revealed that the mean levels of Cd in most vegetables and Cr and Pb in some vegetables were higher than the maximum recommended limits set by WHO/FAO. In general the results show that the highest concentration of the heavy metals was obtained from Kulfo river area compared to the Arbaminch textile share company area, Abaya Lake area, and Chamo Lake area. Cabbage was maximally contaminated with potential toxic elements followed by Swiss-chard, carrot, tomato, collard green, green pepper and lettuce. Hence, from kulfo river area frequent consumption of cabbage and Swiss chard may cause serious health risks to consumers. The levels of many elements were found to vary with location, suggesting localized inputs of the various contaminants related to industrial and other activities that generate wastewater. This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in soils, waters, and foodstuffs to prevent excessive accrual in food chain.

Keywords


Anyanwu, E.C., Ijeoma Kanu, E.J.E. and Saleh, M.A. (2004). Bioavailable of lead concentration in vegetable plants grown in soil from a reclaimed industrial site: Health implications. Int.J.Food Saf.,6, 31-34 .
Chary, N.S., Kamala, C.T. and Raj, D.S.S. (2008). Assessing Risk of Heavy Metals from Consuming Food Grown on Sewage Irrigated Soils and Food Chain Transfer. Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 69, 513-524.
Christian, G.D. (2003). Analytical Chemistry sixth Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Csuros, M., Csuros, C. (2002). Environmental sampling and analysis for metals. CRC Press, USA.
Dagne,B.B. (2017). Levels of Some Toxic Heavy Metals in Selected Vegetables, Soil and wastewater Around Eastern Industry Zone, Central Ethiopia, MSc. Graduate project, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Deribachew, B., Made, M., Nigussie-Dechassa,R. and Abi,M. T. ( 2015). Selected heavy metals in some vegetables produced through wastewater irrigation and their toxicological implications in eastern Ethiopia . Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev., 15,10013-10032 .
Eslami, A., Khaniki, Gh.R.J., Nurani, M., Meharasbi, M., Peyda, M. and Azimi, R. (2007). Heavy metals in edible green vegetables grown along the sites of the Zanjan roads Iran. J. Biol. Sci., 7, 943-948 .
FAO/WHO. (2001). Codex Alimentarius Commission. Food additive and contaminants, Joint FAO/ WHO Food Standards Programme, ALINORM 01/12A.
Farid, G., Sarwar, N., Saifullah ,U., Ahmad, A., Ghafoor, A. and Rehman, M. (2015). Heavy Metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) Contamination of Soils, Plants and Waters in Madina Town of Faisalabad Metropolitan and Preparation of GIS Based Maps. Adv. Crop Sci. Tech., 4(1), 1-7.
Girmaye, B. R. (2012). Heavy metal and microbial contaminants of some vegetables irrigated with
wastewater in selected farms around Adama town, Ethiopia. MSc. Graduate project, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Haiyan, W. and Stuanes, A. (2003). Heavy Metal Pollution in Air-Water-Soil-Plant System of Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China. Water Air Soil Pollut., 147, 79-107 .
Helaluddin, A.B.M., Reem,S.K., Mohamed,A. and Syed, A.A. (2016). Main Analytical Techniques Used for Elemental Analysis in Various Matrices. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 15 (2) , 427-434 .
International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). (1994). Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. Downloaded from: http://www. ich.org/fileadmin/Public/Web_Site/ICH_Products/ Guidelines/Quality/Q2_R1/Step4/Q2_R1_Guideline. pdf., 19/04/2011.
Itanna, F. (2002). Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. Ethiop. J. Health Dev., 6, 295- 302 .
Jorgensen, N., Laursen, J., Viksna, A., Pind, N. and Holm, P.E. (2005). Multi-elemental EDXRF mapping of polluted soil from former horticultural land. Environ. Int., 31(1) , 43-52 .
Karbassi, A., Nasrabadi, T., Rezai, M., & Modabberi, S. (2014). Pollution with metals (As, Sb, Hg, Zn) in
Abrham, F. and Gholap, A.V.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
216
agricultural soil located close to Zarshuran gold mine, Iran. Environmental Engineering & Management Journal, 13(1):115-122.
Kawatra, B.L. and Bakhetia P. (2008). Consumption of heavy metal and minerals by adult women through food in sewage and tube-well irrigated area around Ludhiana city (Punjab, India). J. Hum. Ecol., 23, 351-354 .
Khairiah, J., Zalifah, M.K., Yin, Y.H. and Aminha, A. (2004). The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 7,1438-1442 .
Khan, S.A., Khan, L., Hussain, I., Marwat,K.B. and Akhtar, N. (2008). Profile of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 14(1– 2): 101–110 .
Lokeshwari, H. and Chandrappa, G.T. (2006). Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur Lake on soil and cultivated vegetation. Curr. Sci., 91, 622-627 .
Martinez, C. E. and Motto, H. L. (2000). Solubility of lead, zinc and copper added to mineral soils. Environ. Pollut., 107(1), 153–158 .
Mensah, E., Allen, H.E., Shoji, R., Odai, S.N., Kyei-Baffour, N., Ofori, E. and Mezler, D. (2008). Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) Concentrations Effects on Yields of Some Vegetables Due to Uptake from Irrigation Water in Ghana. Int. J. Agric. Res., 3, 243-251 .
Nasrabadi, T., Maedeh, P. A., Sirdari, Z. Z., Bidabadi, N. S., Solgi, S., & Tajik, M. (2015). Analyzing the quantitative risk and hazard of different waterborne arsenic exposures: case study of Haraz River, Iran. Environmental earth sciences, 74(1), 521-532.
Nasrabadi, T., Ruegner, H., Schwientek, M., Bennett, J., Fazel Valipour, S., & Grathwohl, P. (2018). Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships. PloS one, 13(1), e0191314.
Nazif, W., Perveen, S. and Shah, S.A. (2006). Evaluation of irrigation water for heavy metals of Akbarpura area. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 1(1),51-54 .
Nwajei, G.E. (2009).Trace elements in soils and vegetations in the vicinity of shell Petroleum Development Company operating area in Ughelli, delta state of Nigeria. Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3, 574-578 .
Ogundele, D.T., Adio, A.A. and Oludele, O.E. (2015). Heavy Metal Concentrations in Plants and Soil along Heavy Traffic Roads in North Central Nigeria. J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol., 5(6), 1-5 .
Othman, O.C. (2001). Physicochemical characteristics of some locally manufactured edible vegetable oils marketed in Dar es Salaam. Tanz. J. Sci., 27, 1-10 .
Parsons, M.L. and Forster, A.L. (1983). Applied Spectroscopy, 37, 411-418.
Sharma, R.K., Agrawal, M. and Marshall, F.M. (2007). Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 66, 258-266 .
Temminghoff, E..J., Houba, V.J. (2004). Plant Analysis Procedures Second Edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
Thompson, H.C. and Kelly, W.C. (1990). Vegetable Crops, 5th Edn., McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.
Tsade, H.K. (2016). Atomic absorption spectroscopic determination of heavy metal concentrations in kulufo river, arbaminch, gamo gofa, Ethiopia. J Environ Anal Chem 2016, 3:1. DOI: 10.4172/2380-2391.1000177
United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3005A. (1998), Acid digestion of water for total recoverable or dissolved metals for analysis by FLAA or ICP-Spectroscopy.
USEPA. (2007). Solutions to Analytical Chemistry Problems with Clean Water Act Methods. EPA 821-R-07-002, Washington, DC.
USEPA. (2008). National Functional Guidelines for Superfund Organic Methods Data Review. USEPA-540- R08-01, Washington, DC.
USEPA. (2010). Risk-based concentration table. United State Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC, USA.
WHO. (2008). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 3rd edition.
WHO/FAO. (2007). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission 13th Session. Report of the Thirty Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene, Houston, United States of America, ALINORM 07/ 30/13.