Removal of Fe3+ Ions from Wastewater by Activated Borassus flabellifer Male Flower Charcoal

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Chemistry Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh


Safe and clean water is essential for all living beings. Consumption of polluted water which is contaminated with iron may cause serious health implications. Therefore, removal of Fe3+ from wastewater is prerequisite for further uses. The present study intended to prepare activated charcoal (AC) from Borassus flabellifer male flower (BF) for the removal of Fe3+ ions from wastewater in a cost effective way. BFAC was produced based on carbonization method. Surface morphology and elemental composition were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. Additionally surface charge was determined by iodine number and zero point charge calculation. Batch adsorption studies were monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The obtain results showed a maximum adsorption at pH 8 with 0.3g adsorbent dosage at 50ppm initial Fe3+ ion concentration for 130 min contact time. The analysis of adsorption isotherm was in good agreement with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The Fe3+ removal method was found to be controlled by 1st order kinetics mechanism. However, the production cost was much cheaper and the removal performance was comparatively better than other commercial charcoals. Hence, BFAC could be used as a commercial charcoal in rural area of Bangladesh for purification of waste water.


Akkaya, G. and Ozer, A. (2005). Adsorption of acid red 274 (AR 274) on Dicranella varia: determination of equilibrium and kinetic model parameters. Proc. Biochem., 40; 3559-3568.
Allwar, A. (2016). Preparation and characteristics of activated carbon from oil palm shell for removal of iron and copper from patchouli oil. Int. J. Appl. Chem., 12 (3); 183-192.
Ara, M. H., Mondal, U. K., Dhar, P. K. and Uddin M. N. (2018). Presence of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Collected from Jashore, Bangladesh: Human Health Risk Assessment. JCHR., 8(4); 277-287.
Awwad, N. S., Daifuallah, A. A. M. and Ali, M. M. S. (2008). Removal of Pb2+, Cd2+, Fe3+, and Sr2+ from Aqueous Solution by Selected Activated Carbons Derived from Date Pits. Solvent Extr. Ion Exc., 26; 764–782.
Aziz, M. H. A., Gutub, S., Soliman, M. F. and Bassyouni, M. (2016). Removal of Fe++ from Wastewater Using Sludge-polymer Hybrid Adsorbents. Environ. Prot., 18; 28-45.
Baseri, J. R. (2012). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from the vetia peruviana for the removal of dyes from textile waste water. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res., 3; 377-383.
Beenakumari, K. S. (2009). Removal of iron from water using modified coconut shell charcoal as adsorbent. Curr World Environ., 4(2); 321-326.
Bernard, E., Jimoh, A. and Odigure, J.O. (2013). Heavy Metals Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell. Res. j. chem. Sci., 3(8); 3-9.
Biswas, R. K., Roy, M. K. and Haque, K. I. (2013). Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Purpose in Some Parts of Jhenaidah District, Bangladesh. IJGEES., 3(1); 195-204.
Chakrabarty, S., Mahmud, M. A., Ara, M. H. and Bhattacharjee, S. (2021). Development of a Platform for Removal of Iron (III) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using CuO Nanoparticles. J. Water Environ. Nanotechnol., 6(1); 41-48.
Chakrabarty, S., Tonu, N. T. and Saha, N. K. (2017). Removal of Iron (II) ion from Aqueous Solution Using Waste Tea Leaves. Int. J. Eng. Sci., 6(12); 62-67.
Chaturvedi, S. and Dave, P. N. (2012). Removal of Iron for Safe Drinking Water, Desalination., 303(1); 1-11.
Choy, K. K. H., Barford, J. P., and McKay, G. (2005). Production of activated carbon from bamboo scaffolding waste—process design, evaluation and sensitivity analysis. Chem. Eng. J., 109(1–3); 147–165.
Dahlan, I., Hassan, S. R. and Hakim, M. L. (2013).Removal of iron (Fe2+) from aqueous solutions using siliceous waste sorbent, Sustain. Environ. Res., 23(1); 41-48.
Dhanik, J. and Kumar, S. (2017). Adsorption study of Fe2+ ions in presence of co-metal ions from aqueous solution on Cuscuta powder. Int. J. Chem. Stud., 5(4); 1062-1066.
Ekpete, O. A., Marcus, A. C. and Osi, V. (2017). Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Obtained from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Fruit Stem. J. Chem., 2017; 1-6.
Ghaedi, M., Biyareh, M. N., Kokhdan, S. N., Shamsaldini, S., Sahraei, R., Daneshfar, A. and Shahriyar, S. (2012). Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Adsorbents for the Kinetic and Equilibrium Study of the Removal of Alizarin Red S and Morin. Mater. Sci. Eng., 32; 725-734.
Gil, R. A., Kaplan, M. M., Salonia, J. A., G’asquez, J. A. and Martinez, L.D. (2007). Total Inorganic Se and Te Preconcentration and their Determination by On-Line Coupling of a Solid-Phase Extraction Procedure with HG-AAS. At. Spectrosc., 28(2); 67-72.
Igwe, J. C., Abia, A. A. and Maize. (2003). Cob and Huks As Adsorbents for the Removal of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Ions from Wastewater. Phys. Sci., 2; 83-92.
Iman, E. S., Nady, A. F. and Adli, A. H. (2013). Removal of Mn (II) and Fe (II) ions From Aqueous Solution Using Precipitation and Adsorption Methods. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 9; 233-239.
Khan, M. N. and Sarwar, A. (2007). Determination of points of zero charge of natural and treated adsorbents. ‎Surf. Rev. Lett., 14; 461-469.
Kouakou, U., Ello, A. S., Yapo, J. A. and Trokourey, A. (2013). Adsorption of iron and zinc on commercial activated carbon. JECE., 5(6); 168-171.
Lima, I. M., McAloon, A., and Boateng, A. A. (2008). Activated carbon from broiler litter: Process description and cost of production. Biomass & Bioenergy., 32(6); 568–572.
Livinus, A., Obasi, A. O., and Cornelius, O. Nevo. (2018). Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetics for the Removal of Fe3+ from Aqueous Solution using Activated Coconut Wastes. JCHPS., 5(4); 29-35.
Lo, S. F., Wang, S. Y., Tsai, M. J. and Lin, L. D. (2012). Adsorption Capacity and Removal Efficiency of Heavy Metal Ions by Moso and Ma Bamboo Activated Carbons. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 90; 1397-1406.
Magda, A. A., Yousef, A. M. and Abdelnasser. (2013). Removal iron and manganese from water samples using activated carbon derived from local agro-residue. J. Chem. Eng. Pro. Technol., 4(4); 154-163.
Mamun, K. R., Saha, N. K. and Chakrabarty, S. (2019). A Comparative Study of the Adsorption Capacity of Tea Leaves and Orange Peel for the Removal of Fe (III) ion from Waste water. J. Chem. Health Risks., 9(2); 107-115.
Mehmet, E. A., Sukru, D., Celalettin, O. and Mustafa, K. (2006). Heavy metal adsorption by modified oak sawdust. J. of Hazard. Mater., In Press.
Meril, D., Shamim, A., jahan, A., Cristian, B. and West, P. (2012). Ground water iron assessment and consumption by women in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Int J Vitam Nutr Res., 82; 5-14.
Modin, H., Persson, K. M., Andersson, A. and Praagh, M. V. (2011). Removal of Metals from Landfill Leachate by Sorption to Activated Carbon, Bone Meal and Iron Fines. J. Hazard. Mater., 189(3); 749-754.
Namasivayam, C. and Sureshkumar, M. V. (2008). Removal of Chromium (VI) from Water and Wastewater Using Surfactant Modified Coconut Coir Pith as a Biosorbent. Bioresour. Technol., 99(7); 2218-2225.
Ng, C., Bansode, R. R., Marshall, W. E., Losso, J. N., and Rao, R. M. (2002). Process description and product cost to manufacture sugarcane bagasse-based granular activated carbon. Int. Sugar J., 104(1245); 401–408.
Ng, C., Marshall, W. E., Rao, R. M., Bansode, R. R., and Losso, J. N. (2003). Activated carbon from pecan shell: Process description and economic analysis. Ind. Cros Prod., 17(3); 209–217.
Ojha, A. K. and Bulasara, V. K. (2015). Adsorption Behavior of Methylene Blue onto Powdered Ziziphus Lotus Fruit Peels and Avocado Kernels Seeds. Progress Sustain Ener., 34 (2); 461-470.
Osemeahon, S.A., Barminas, J.T. and Adama M.A. H. (2013). Studies on the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution using Immobilized Bombax costatum calyx. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicol. Food Techno., 3(6); 6-13.
ÖztaƟ, N. A., Karabakan, A. and Topal, Ö. (2008). Removal of Fe(III) Ion from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Raw and Treated Clinoptilolite Samples. Microporous and Mesoporous Mater., 11; 200–205.
Qian, G., Li, M., Wang, F. and Liu, X. (2014). Removal of Fe3+ from Aqueous Solution by Natural Apatite, J Surf Eng Mater Adv Technol., 4; 14-20.
Rana, P., Sohel, S., Islam, S., Akhter, S., Chowdhury, M. S., Alamgir, M. and Koike, M. (2009). Traditional Practice of palm husbandry in the southeastern region of rural Bangladesh. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag., 5(3); 155-161.
Rekha, D., Suvardhan, K., Kumar, K. S., Reddyprasad, P., Jayaraj, B. and Chiranjeevi, P. (2007). Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper(II) in Water and Alloy Samples with 3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde-4-Bromophenyl Hydrazone (3,4-MHBBPH). J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 72(3); 299-310.
Rose, E. P. and Rajam, S. (2012). Equilibrium study of the adsorption of iron (II) ions from aqueous solution on carbons from wild jack and jambul. Adv Appl Sci Res., 3(2); 1889-1894.
Salehzadeh, J. (2013), Removal of Heavy Metals Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+ from Aqueous Solutions by using Xanthium pensylvanicum. Leonardo J Sci., 2013(23); 97-104.
Sarin, P., Snoeyink, V. L., Bebee, J., Jim, K. K., Beckett, M. A. and Kriven, W. M. (2004). Iron Release from Corroded Iron Pipes in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Effect of Dissolved Oxygen. Water Res., 38(5); 1259-1269.
Selatnia, A., Boukazoula, A., Kechid, N., Bakhti, M. Z. and Chergui, A. (2004). Biosorption of Fe3+ from Aqueous Solution by a Bacterial Dead Streptomyces Rimosus Biomass. Process Biochem., 39(11); 1643-1651.
Selvaraju, G., and Bakar, N. K. A. (2017). Production of a new industrially viable green-activated carbon from Artocarpus integer fruit processing waste and evaluation of its chemical, morphological and adsorption properties. J. Clean. Prod., 141; 989–999.
Shama, S.A., Gad, M.A. (2010). Removal of Heavy Metals (Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+) from Aqueous Solutions by Using Hebba Clay and Activated Carbon. Port. Electrochim. Acta., 28(4); 231-239.
Sheibani, A., Shishehbor, M. R. and Alaei, H. (2012). Removal of Fe3+ Ions from Aqueous Solution by Hazelnut Hull as an Adsorbent. Int. J. Ind. Chem., 3; 1-4.
Shrestha, R. M., Yadav, A. P., Pokharel, B. P. and Pradhananga, R. R. (2012). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Lapsi (Choerospondiasaxillaris) seed stone by chemical activation with phosphoric acid. Res. J. Chem. Sci., 2; 80-86.
Sika, M. S. A., Liu, F. and Chen, H. (2010). Optimization of key parameters for chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solutions using activated charcoal. J. Soil. Sci. Environ. Manage., 1(3); 55-62.
Song, X., Zhang, Y., and Chang, C. (2012). Novel Method for Preparing Activated Carbons with High Specific Surface Area from Rice Husk. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51(46); 15075–15081.
Stavropoulos, G. G., and Zabaniotou, A. A. (2009). Minimizing activated carbons production cost. Fuel Process. Technol., 90(7–8); 952–957.
Suzuki, R. M., Andrade, A. D., Sousa, J. C., and Rollemberg, M. C. (2007). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rice bran. Bioresour. Technol., 98(10); 1985– 1991.
Syed, A., Kumar, G., Tonu, N. T., Chakrabarty, S., Mahiuddin, M. and Hoque, K. (2020). An Investigation of the Adsorption Capacity of Carbon Particle for the Removal of Fe3+ ion from Water. Int. J. Chem. Stud., 8(2); 55-61.
Tabak, A., Eren, E., Afsin, B. and Caglar, B. (2009). Determination of adsorptive properties of a Turkish Sepiolite for removal of Reactive blue 15 anionic dye from aqueous solutions. J. Hazard. Mater., 161; 1087- 1094.
Toles, C. A., Marshall, W. E., Wartelle, L. H., and McAloon, A. (2000). Steam- or carbon dioxide-activated carbons from almond shells: Physical, chemical and adsorptive properties and estimated cost of production. Bioresour. Technol., 75(3); 197–203.
Wang, J. and Chen C. (2009). Biosorbents for Heavy Metals Removal and Their Future. Biotechnol. Adv., 27; 195-226.
Wyasu, G., Gimba, C. E., Agbaji, E. B. and Ndukwe, G. I. (2016). Adsorption of Cr6+ and Fe3+ from Hospital Wastewater Using Activated Carbon from Epicarp of Detarium Microcarpum and Balanitea Egyptiaca Shells. J. chem. pharm., 8(3); 92-99.
Yu, F., Ma, J. and Wu, Y. Q. (2011). Adsorption of Toluene, Ethyl Benzene and M-Xylene on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Different Oxygen Contents from Aqueous Solutions. J. Hazard. Mater., 192; 1370-1379.
Zaini, M. A. A., Amano, Y. and Machida, M. (2010). Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Activated Carbons Derived from Polyacrylonitrile Fiber. J. Hazard. Mater., 180(13); 552-560.
Zhang, Z., Xiao, C., Adeyeye, O., Yang, W. and Liang, X. (2020). Source and Mobilization Mechanism of Iron, Manganese and Arsenic in Ground Water of Shuangliao City, Northeast China. Water., 12; 534.