Annual Effective Dose Assessment of Radon in Drinking Water from Abandoned Tin and Cassiterite Mining Site in Oyun, Kwara State, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

2 BS Geophysical and Consultancy Limited, Nigeria.

3 Data Processing Department, Integrated Data Services Limited, NNPC, Indorama Complex Portharcourt, Nigeria.

4 Department of Physics, Michael Opkara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.


Mining activities are generally known to enhance the concentration of primordial radionuclides in the environment thereby contributing immensely to human exposure to ionizing radiation of terrestrial origin. Thus, the abandoned Tin and Cassiterite mining site in Oyun, Kwara State, Nigeria, is believed to cause radiological implications on local residents.  Assessment of radon concentration in surface water from the study area was carried out using RAD7-Active Electronic detector big bottle system. In order to ascertain the risk or hazard incurable in consuming such water, 12 samples were analysed and used in the estimation of annual effective dose of radon. The measured maximum and minimum radon concentrations were found to be 44.95 and 21.03 Bq/L with average of 35.86 Bq/L. These values are quite greater than the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) recommended limits of 11.1.Bq/L. The estimated total effective dose (AEDEtotal) was found to be within the range of 206.52 and 441.41 μSvy-1, and an average of 352.20 μSvy-1 for Adults, 283.30 and 605.47 μSvy-1, and average of 483.10 μSvy-1 for Children, and finally, 321.70 and 687.47 μSvy-1 with average of 548.64 μSvy-1 for Infants, respectively. These values were higher than the recommended limit of 100 µSvy-1 and 200 µSvy-1 for adult and children respectively. Furthermore, worries should be noted about the probabilistic cumulative effect on the consumers of such water if the ingestion is for an extended period of time.


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