Constructed Wetlands: A sustainable way of Treating Wastewater in Cold Climate - A review

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh - 177005, India

2 Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute Of Technology Hamirpur, Hamirpur, H.P.-177005, India

3 Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur, Hamirpur, H.P. - 177005


The use of constructed wetland (CW) is a natural way of treating wastewater sustainably and economically. However, the implementation of these systems in freezing conditions is still a matter of research and development. The treatment capacity of CWs relies largely on the biological and biochemical processes which further depends on physical conditions such as temperature, solar radiations, etc. Application of wetland systems for treating wastewater faces many challenges in regions with cold climates, resolving which this review has been made. This paper presents a thorough understanding of the components of CWs and their role in contaminant removal. A comprehensive review of the different types of CWs has been done describing the treatment efficiency achieved by its implementation in the cold climate. Furthermore, various technologies which can be clubbed with CWs have also been listed along with the treatment efficiencies obtained. Literature survey indicates that the extent of removing organics (COD and BOD5) and total phosphorous (TP) are not likely to be affected, but total nitrogen (TN) removal appears to slow down at low temperatures. Despite several advantages of CW technology, further research is required to select suitable macrophytes and optimum design parameters to compensate for frigid conditions.


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