Human health risk assessment via the consumption of platycephalus indicus in the Persian Gulf, Iran

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Gonbad Kavous University, Iran

2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran


The assessment of human health risk associated with accumulation of lead, copper, zinc, nickel, and Arsenic in the muscle of bartail flathead (Platycephalus indicus) collected from Jofreh pier and Bushehr port, northwest of the Persian Gulf of Iran was examined. A total of 80 P. indicus were collected and analysed using ICP-OES from two seasons (summer and winter) of 2019; estimated daily intake (EDI), estimated weekly intake (EWI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI) and Carcinogenic risk (CR) were determined. The mean concentration (μg/g) range were observed as: zinc (16.37-50.17)> As (5.65-8.83)> Cu (2.19-3.63)> Pb (0.62-6.37)> Ni (0.17-1.08). Hazard index (HI) for adult and children during consumption of P.indicus was <1, the highest HI values were calculated for adults (0.06) in Bushehr and children (0.14) in Jofreh. The CR levels for Ni and Pb were within acceptable limits (10-6 to 10-4) and arsenic was unacceptable (> 10-4) at sampling sites.


Adel, M., Conti, G.O., Dadar, M., Mahjoub, M., Copat, C. and Ferrante, M. (2016). Heavy metal concentrations in edible muscle of whitecheek shark, Carcharhinus dussumieri (elasmobranchii, chondrichthyes) from the Persian Gulf: a food safety issue. Food Chem. Toxicol., 97; 135–140.
Aderinola, O.J., Clarke, E.O., Olarinmoye, O.M., Kusemiju, V. and Anetekhai, M.A. (2009). Heavy metals in surface water, sediments, fish and periwinkles of Lagos Lagoon. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci., 5(5); 609-617.
Ali, H. and Khan, E. (2019). Trophic transfer, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of non-essential hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in food chains/webs: concepts and implications for wild life and human health. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J., 25; 1353-1376.
Alipour, H., Pourkhabbaz, A. and Hassanpour, M. (2015). Estimation of potential health risks for some metallic elements by consumption of fish. Water Qual., Exposure. Health., 7; 179–185.
Batista, B.L., Nacano, L.R., de Freitas, R., de Oliveira-Souza, V.C. and Barbosa, F. (2012). Determination of essential (Ca, Fe, I, K, Mo) and toxic elements (Hg, Pb) in Brazilian rice grains and estimation of reference daily intake. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 3; 129.
Bahnasawy, M., Khidr, A. and Dheina, N. (2011). Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in water, plankton and fish of Lake Manzala, Egypt. Turk. J. Zool., 35 (2); 271–280.
Castro-Gonzalez, M.I. and Mendez-Armenta, M. (2008). Heavy metals: implications associated to fish consumption. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol., 26(3); 263-271.
El-Moselhy, K. M., Othman, A. I., El-Azem, H.A. and El-Metwally, M. E. A. (2014). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in some tissues of fish in the Red Sea, Egypt. Egypt. j. basic appl. sci., 30; 1-9.
Filazi, A., Baskaya, R. and Kum, C. (2003). Metal concentration in tissues of the Black Sea fish Mugil auratus form Sinop-Icliman, Turkey.Human and Experimental Toxicology, 22(3); 85-87.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health. (2011). Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Methylmercury. WHO Food Addit. Ser., 63; 605–684.
Gholizadeh, M. and Patimar, R. (2018). Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from the Gorgan Bay, Caspian Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 137; 662-667.
Gholizadeh, M., Mohammadzadeh, B. and Kazemi, A. (2021). Determination of iron and nickel metals in the muscle of fish Terapon puta. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences 23 (1), 121-128.
Hashemi, S.A.R. and Taghavi Motlagh, S. (2013). Diet Composition of bartail flathead (Platycephalus indicus) in northwest of Persian Gulf. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences., 5(1); 35-41.
Ibrahim, A.T.A. and Omar, H.M. (2013). Seasonal variation of heavy metals accumulation in muscles of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus, River Nile water and sediments at Assiut Governorate, Egypt. J. Biol. Earth Sci., 3 (2); 236–248.
I -Hsun, N., Chen, S.M. and Wang, W.X. (2005). Influences of salinity on the biokinetics of Pb, Se and Zn in the intertidal mudskipper Periophthalmus cantonensis. Chemosphere., 6l; 1607 -1617.
IFOSY. (2018). Fish consumption per capita in Iran Iranian Fisheries Organization Statistical Yearbook, pp. 22-23.
ISIRI (Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran). (2015). Food & Feed Maximum Limit of Heavy Metals, 1st Edition. Iran National Standard (ICS: 67.020).
Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B. B. and Beeregowda, K. N. (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology. 7(2); 60–72.
Kamaruzzaman, B.Y., Shuhada, N.T., Akbar, B., Shahbudin, S., Jalal, K.C.A., Ong, M.C., Al-Barwani, S.M. and Goddard, J.S. (2011). Spatial concentrations of lead and copper in bottom sediments of Langkawi coastal area, Malaysia. Res J Environ Sci., 5; 179–186.
Keshavarzi, B., Hassanaghaei, M., Moore, F., Rastegari Mehr, M., Soltanian, S., Lahijanzadeh, A. R. and Sorooshian, A. (2018). Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf. Bull. Mar. Sci., 129; 245–252.
MAFF (2000). Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1997. Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 52. Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK.
Meche, A., Martins, M.C., Lofrano, B.E.S.N., Hardaway, C.J., Merchant, M. and Verdade, L. (2010). Determination of heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in fish from the Piracicaba River in Southern Brazil. Microchem J., 94(2); 171-174.
Mehmood, M.A., Qadri, H., Bhat, R.A. et al. (2019). Heavy metal contamination in two commercial fish species of a trans-Himalayan freshwater ecosystem. Environ Monit Assess., 191 (2); 104.
Mendil, D., Demirci, Z., Tuzen, M. and Soylak, M. (2010). Seasonal investigation of trace element contents in commercially valuable fish species from the Black sea, Turkey. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48; 865–870.
Mutlu, A., Lee, B.K., Park, G.H., Yu, B.G. and Lee, C.H. (2012). Long-term concentrations of airborne cadmium in metropolitan cities in Korea and potential health risks. Atmos Environ., 47; 164–173.
Reyahi-Khoram M., Setayesh-Shiri F. and Cheraghi M. (2016). Study of the heavy metals (Cd and Pb) content in the tissues of rainbow trouts from Hamedan cold water fish farms.       Iran. J. Fish. Sci., 15(2); 858-869.
Ruangsomboom, S. and Wongrat, L. (2006). Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus and C. gariepinus. Aquatic Toxicol., 78(1); 15-18.
Sadeghi, S., Loghmani, M. and Afsa, E. (2019). Trace element concentrations, ecological and health risk assessment in sediment and marine fish Otolithes ruber in Oman Sea, Iran. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 140; 248–254.
Sankhla, M. S., Sharma, K. and Kumar, R. (2017). Heavy Metal Causing Neurotoxicity in Human Health. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol.. 6(5); 7721-7726.
Tepanosyan, G., Maghakyan, N., Sahakyan, L. and Saghatelyan, A. (2017). Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 142; 257–265.
Tepe, Y. (2009). Metal concentrations in eight fish species from Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. Environ Monit Assess., 159 (1); 501-509.
Tepe, Y. and Süer, N. (2016). The levels of heavy metals in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819); Example of Giresun coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. Indian J Mar Sci .,45(2); 283-289.
Tokatli, C. and Ustaoğlu, F. (2020). Health risk assessment of toxicants in Meriç River Delta Wetland, Thrace Region, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci., 79 (18); 1-12.
Traina, A., Bono, G., Bonsignore, M., Falco, F., Giuga, M., Quinci, E.M. and Sprovieri, M., (2019). Heavy metals concentrations in some commercially key species from Sicilian coasts (Mediterranean Sea): potential human health risk estimation. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 168; 466–478.
Ustaoğlua, F. and Islam, M. (2020). Potential toxic elements in sediment of some rivers at Giresun, Northeast Turkey: A preliminary assessment for ecotoxicological status and health risk. Ecol. Indic., 113; 106237.
Ustaoğlua, F., Tepe,Y. and Aydin, H. (2020). Heavy metals in sediments of two nearby streams from Southeastern Black Sea coast: Contamination and ecological risk assessment. Environ. Forensics., 21(2); 145-156.
USEPA. (2019). Regional screening levels (RSLs) - generic tables [WWW document]. Risk Assess. URL., Accessed date: 29 November 2019.
WHO (World Health Organization). (2011). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Fourth ed. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Yabanli, M., Tay, S. and Giannetto, D. (2016). Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposure after sea bream (Sparus aurata) consumption in Aegean region, Turkey. Bulgarian J. Vet. Med., 19; 127–136.
Yüksel, B., Ustaoğlu, F. and Arica, E. (2021). Impacts of a Garbage Disposal Facility on the Water Quality of Çavuşlu Stream in Giresun, Turkey: A Health Risk Assessment Study by a Validated ICP-MS Assay. Aquat. Sci. Eng., 36(4): 181-192.
Yap, C. K., Ismail, A., Tan, S. G. and Omar, H. (2002). Correlations between speciation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediment and their concentrations in total soft tissue of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Environ. Int., 28(1-2); 117–126.
Yu, Y., Wang, X., Yang, D., Lei, B., Zhang, X. and Zhang, X. (2014). Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non–carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake. China. Food Chem. Toxicol., 69; 86–93.
Zhao, S., Feng, C., Quan, W., Chen, X., Niu, J. and Shen, Z. (2012). Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Mar Pollut Bull., 64(6); 1163-1171.