Monitoring of Trihalomethanes and its Cancer Risk Assessment in Drinking Water of Delhi City, India

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India


The current study determines the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), and the cancer risk associated with them. The tap water sampling was done from the command area of nine water treatment plants (WTPs) of Delhi, India. THMs levels in the water samples from eighteen distribution points were investigated for one year. The cancer risk (CR) related to THMs by different exposure routes i.e., ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation, was assessed for males and females. The THM levels varied between 11.41 µg/L to 175.54 µg/L in the distribution system, having a mean level of 77.58 µg/L. The average concentrations of THMs exceeded the maximum permissible limit given by Indian Standards. The concentration of chloroform was maximum, followed by bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. For males and females, the mean value of total CR was 5.09E-05 5.70E-05, respectively. As the THMs levels were high, the total CR value was also more than the negligible level of risk i.e., 1.0 x 10-6 through all exposure routes.


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