Assessment of groundwater and surface water pollution by hazardous metals, using multivariate analysis and metal pollution index around the old Sidi Kamber mine, NE Algeria

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Laboratory LGCES, Faculty of Technology, 20 Août 1955 University, El-Hadaeik Road, P.O. Box 26, Skikda 21000, Algeria

2 Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Technology, 20 Août 1955 University, P.O. Box 26, Skikda 21000, Algeria

3 department of petrochemical, Faculty of Technology, 20 Août 1955 University, P.O. Box 26, Skikda 21000, Algeria.

4 petrochemistry and process engineering faculty of technology university 20 August 1955 Skikda Algeria


In order to evaluate the impact on water quality of the abandoned Sidi Kamber mine in Skikda, NE Algeria, Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn and Ni metals were collected at surface water and groundwater, from twenty eight sites located near the mine. Conventional hydrochemical methods, heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and multivariate statistical analysis techniques: correlation matrix (CM), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used. Surface water results show that El-Souk River has a high level of pollution, but Guenitra dam water is less contaminated. Regarding the groundwater results, the wells and springs are not suitable for drinking. The overall quality estimated by HPI values of surface and groundwater are poor; they may pose a potential health risk to the local population. The PCA and HCA suggest that surface water and groundwater are contaminated by two sources: anthropogenic and natural. According to the obtained results, surface water and groundwater pollution state of this area raises serious concerns about health and environment.


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