Aalderen, W.M. Van (2012). Childhood Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Scientifica (Cairo), 2012; 1–18.
Abidin, E.Z., Semple, S., Rasdi, I., Ismail, S.N.S. and Ayres, J.G. (2014). The relationship between air pollution and asthma in Malaysian schoolchildren. Air Qual. Atmos. Heal., 7; 421–432.
Al-Dawood, K. (2001). Parental Smoking and the Risk of Respiratory Symptoms Among Schoolboys in Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia. J. Asthma, 38; 149–154.
Alford, K.L.and Kumar, N. (2021). Pulmonary Health Effects of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds - A Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 18; 1–11.
ASCIA (Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy) (2016). Skin prick testing for the diagnosis of allergic disease - A manual for practitioners. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from https://www.allergy.org.au/images/stories/pospapers/ASCIA_SPT_Manual_March_2016.pdf.
Asher, M.I., García-Marcos, L., Pearce, N.E. and Strachan, D.P. (2020). Trends in worldwide asthma prevalence. Eur. Respir. J., 56(6); 1-32.
Askariyeh, M.H., Venugopal, M., Khreis, H. and Birt, A. (2020). Near-Road Traffic-Related Air Pollution:Resuspended PM2.5 from Highways and Arterials. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 17; 1–11.
Baccouche, B.M. and Sevostianov, V.I. (2020). Mechanisms of VOC Pollution-Induced Respiratory Dysfunction: A Review. New Maxico J. Sci., 54; 2–13.
Benedictis, D. De, Bush, A. (2007). The Challenge of Asthma in Adolescence. Pediatr. Pulmonol., 42; 683–692.
Bennett, J., Davy, P., Trompetter, B., Wang, Y., Pierse, N., Boulic, M., Phipps, R. and Howden-chapman, P. (2018). Sources of indoor air pollution at a New Zealand urban primary school; a case study. Atmos. Pollut. Res., 10; 435–444.
Bentayeb, M., Billionnet, C., Baiz, N., Derbez, M., Kirchner, S. and Annesi-Maesano, I. (2013). Higher prevalence of breathlessness in elderly exposed to indoor aldehydes and VOCs in a representative sample of French dwellings. Respir. Med., 107; 1598–1607.
Bird, Y. and Staines-Orozco, H. (2016). Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico. Int. J. COPD, 11; 1459–1467.
Branco, P.T.B.S., Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M., Martins, F.G., Ferraz, C., Vaz, L.G. and Sousa, S.I.V. (2020). Science of the Total Environment Impact of indoor air pollution in nursery and primary schools on childhood asthma. Sci. Total Environ., 745; 1–11.
Cai, G., Hashim, J.H., Hashim, Z., Ali, F., Bloom, E., Larsson, L., Lampa, E. and Norbäck, D. (2011). Fungal DNA, allergens, mycotoxins and associations with asthmatic symptoms among pupils in schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol., 22; 290–297.
Cao, S., Wen, D., Li, S., Duan, X., Zhang, Y., Gong, J., Guo, Q., Xu, X., Qin, N., Meng, X. and Zhang, J.J. (2020). Changes in children’s asthma prevalence over two decades in Lanzhou: effects of socioeconomic, parental and household factors. J. Thorac. Dis., 12; 6365–6378.
Chinratanapisit, S., Suratannon, N., Pacharn, P., Sritipsukho, P. and Vichyanond, P. (2019). Prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children from the Bangkok area: The Global Asthma Network (GAN) Phase I. Asian Pacific J. Allergy Immunol., 37; 226–231.
Dai, S. and Chan, K.C. (2020). Associations of household environmental tobacco smoke exposure with respiratory symptoms and utilisation of medical services in healthy young children in Hong Kong. Tob. Induc. Dis., 18; 1–9.
Del-Rio-Navarro, B.E., Navarrete-Rodríguez, E.M., Berber, A., Reyes-Noriega, N. and Álvarez, L.G.-M. (2020). The burden of asthma in an inner-city area: A historical review 10 years after ISAAC. World Allergy Organ. J., 13; 1–12.
Deng, Q., Lu, C., Yu, Y., Li, Y., Sundell, J. and Norbäck, D. (2016). Early life exposure to traffic-related air pollution and allergic rhinitis in preschool children. Respir. Med., 121; 67–73.
DOSM (Department of Statistics Malaysia) (2020). Kependudukan Negeri Sabah. Putrajaya. Retrieved December 2, 2021, from https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/uploads/files/6_Newsletter/Newsletter 2020/DOSM_DOSM_SABAH_1_2020_Siri-86.pdf
Enkh-Undraa, D., Kanda, S., Shima, M., Shimono, T., Miyake, M., Yoda, Y., Nagnii, S. and Nishiyama, T. (2019). Coal burning-derived SO2 and traffic-derived NO2 are associated with persistent cough and current wheezing symptoms among schoolchildren in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Environ. Health Prev. Med., 24; 1–11.
Fan, X.-J., Yang, C., Zhang, L., Fan, Q., Li, T., Bai, X., Zhao, Z.-H., Zhang, X. and Norback, D. (2017). Asthma symptoms among Chinese children: The role of ventilation and PM10 exposure at school and home. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 21; 1187–1193.
Foldvary, V., Beko, G., Langer, S., Arrhenius, K. and Petras, D. (2017). Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia. Build. Environ., 122; 363–372.
Fraga, S., Ramos, E., Martins, A., Samúdio, M.J., Silva, G., Guedes, J., Fernandes, E.O. and Barros, H. (2008). Indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms in Porto schools. Rev. Port. Pneumol. (English Ed.), 14; 487–507.
Gabriel, M.F., Paciência, I., Felgueiras, F., Rufo, Cj.C., Mendes, F.C., Farraia, M., Mourão, Z., Moreira, A. and Fernandes, E. de O. (2021). Environmental quality in primary schools and related health effects in children. An overview of assessments conducted in the Northern Portugal. Energy Build., 250; 1–14.
Gaffin, J.M., Hauptman, M., Petty, C.R., Sheehan, W.J., Lai, P.S., Wolfson, J.M., Gold, D.R. and Coull, B.A. (2018). Nitrogen dioxide exposure in school classrooms of inner-city children with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 141; 2249–2255.e2.
Goh, S.H., Chong, K.W., Chiang, W.C., Goh, A. and Loh, W. (2021). Outcome of drug provocation testing in children with suspected beta-lactam hypersensitivity. Asia Pac. Allergy, 11; 1–10.
Goldizen, F.C., Sly, P.D. and Knibbs, L.D. (2016). Respiratory Effects of Air Pollution on Children. Pediatr. Pulmonol., 51; 94–108.
Holst, G.J., Pedersen, C.B., Thygesen, M., Brandt, J., Geels, C., Bønløkke, J.H. and Sigsgaard, T. (2020). Air pollution and family related determinants of asthma onset and persistent wheezing in children: nationwide case-control study. BMJ, 370; 1–9.
Hua, A.K. (2018). Applied chemometric approach in identification sources of air quality pattern in Selangor, Malaysia. Sains Malays., 47; 471–479.
Kamaruddin, A.S., Jalaludin, J. and Hamedon, T. (2016). Exposure to Industrial Air Pollutants and Respiratory Health School and Home Exposure among Primary School Children in Kemaman, Terengganu. Int. J. Appl. Chem., 12; 45–50.
Kim, H.-J., Bae, I.-H., Son, E.D., Park, J., Cha, N., Na, H., Jung, C., Go, Y.-S., Kim, D.-Y., Lee, T.R. and Shin, D.W. (2017). Transcriptome analysis of airborne PM2.5-induced detrimental effects on human keratinocytes. Toxicol. Lett., 273; 26–35.
Li, T., Zhang, X., Li, C., Bai, X., Zhao, Z. and Norback, D. (2019). Onset of respiratory symptoms among Chinese students: Associations with dampness and redecoration, PM10, NO2, SO2 and inadequate ventilation in the school. J. Asthma, 57; 495–504.
Liao, Z., Nie, J. and Sun, P. (2020). The impact of particulate matter (PM2.5) on skin barrier revealed by transcriptome analysis: Focusing on cholesterol metabolism. Toxicol. Reports, 7; 1–9.
Liu, H.-Y., Dunea, D., Iordache, S. and Pohoata, A. (2018). A Review of Airborne Particulate Matter Effects on Young Children’s Respiratory Symptoms and Diseases. Atmosphere (Basel), 9; 1–18.
Ma’pol, A., Hashim, J.H., Norbäck, D., Weislander, G., Hashim, Z. and Isa, Z.M. (2019). FeNO level and allergy status among school children in Terengganu, Malaysia. J. Asthma, 57(8); 842-849.
Madureira, J., Paciencia, I., Rufo, J., Ramos, E., Barros, H., Teixeira, J.P. and Fernandes, E. de O. (2015). Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children’s respiratory symptoms. Atmos. Environ., 118; 145–156.
Madureira, J., PAciencia, I., Rufo, J., Severo, M., Ramos, E., Barros, H. and Fernandes, E.D.O. (2016). Source apportionment of CO2, PM10 and VOCs levels and health risk assessment in naturally ventilated primary schools in Porto, Portugal. Build. Environ., 96; 198–205.
Majbauddin, A., Onishi, K., Otani, S., Kurosaki, Y. and Kurozawa, Y. (2016). Association between Asian Dust-Borne Air Pollutants and Daily Symptoms on Healthy Subjects: A Web-Based Pilot Study in Yonago, Japan. J. Environ. Public Health, 2016; 1–6.
Mann, J.K., Balmes, J.R., Bruckner, T.A., Mortimer, K.M., Margolis, H.G., Pratt, B., Hammond, S.K., Lurmann, F.W. and Tager, I.B. (2010). Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Wheeze in Asthmatic Children in Fresno, California. Environ. Health Perspect., 118; 1497–1502.
Mentz, G., Robins, T.G., Batterman, S. and Naidoo, R.N. (2018). Acute respiratory symptoms associated with short term fluctuations in ambient pollutants among schoolchildren in Durban, South Africa. Environ. Pollut., 233; 529–539.
Mohd Isa, K.N., Hashim, Z., Jalaludin, J., Norbäck, D., Jabbar, M.A. and Hashim, J.H. (2020a). The Impact of Exposure to Indoor Pollutants on Allergy and Lung Inflammation among School Children in Selangor, Malaysia: An Evaluation Using Factor Analysis. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 20; 2371–2383.
Mohd Isa, K.N., Hashim, Z., Jalaludin, J., Than, L.T.L. and Hashim, J.H. (2020b). The Effects of Indoor Pollutants Exposure on Allergy and Lung Inflammation: An Activation State of Neutrophils and Eosinophils in Sputum. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 17; 1–18.
Morkjaroenpong, V., Rand, C.S., Butz, A.M., Huss, K., Eggleston, P., Malveaux, F.J. and Bartlett, S.J. (2002). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and nocturnal symptoms among inner-city children with asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 110; 147–153.
Moustaki, M., Loukou, I., Tsabouri, S. and Douros, K. (2017). The Role of Sensitization to Allergen in Asthma Prediction and Prevention. Front. Pediatr., 5; 1–8.
Norbäck, D., Hashim, J.H., Hashim, Z., Cai, G.-H., Sooria, V., Ismail, S.A. and Wieslander, G. (2017a). Respiratory symptoms and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among students in Penang, Malaysia in relation to sign of dampness at school and funfal DNA in school dust. Sci. Total Environ., 577; 148–154.
Norbäck, D., Hisham, J., Hashim, Z. and Ali, F. (2017b). Volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with rhinitis, ocular, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue. Sci. Total Environ., 592; 153–160.
Norbäck, D., Hisham, J., Hashim, Z., Cai, G., Sooria, V., Aizat, S. and Wieslander, G. (2017c). Respiratory symptoms and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among students in Penang, Malaysia in relation to signs of dampness at school and fungal DNA in school dust. Sci. Total Environ., 577; 148–154.
Norbäck, D., Markowicz, P., Cai, G., Hashim, Z., Ali, F., Zheng, Y., Lai, X., Spangfort, M.D., Larsson, L. and Hashim, J.H. (2014). Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia - Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils. PlosOne, 9; 1–10.
Nyenhuis, S.M., Dixon, A.E. and Ma, J. (2017). Impact of Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Healthy Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Loss on Asthma in Adults: What Is the evidence? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Pract., 6; 751–763.
Olaniyan, T., Jeebhay, M., Röösli, M., Naidoo, R.N., Künzli, N., Hoogh, K. de, Saucy, A., Badpa, M., Baatjies, R., Parker, B., Leaner, J. and Dalvie, M.A. (2020). The association between ambient NO2 and PM2.5 with the respiratory health of school children residing in informal settlements: A prospective cohort study. Environ. Res., 186(2); 1-8.
Othman, M., Latif, M.T. and Matsumi, Y. (2019). The exposure of children to PM2.5 and dust in indoor and outdoor school classrooms in Kuala Lumpur City Centre. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 170; 739–749.
Paciência, I. and Rufo, J.C. (2020). Urban-level environmental factors related to pediatric asthma. Porto Biomed. J., 5; 1–12.
Patel, M.M., Chillrud, S.N., Correa, J.C., Hazi, Y., Feinberg, M., Deepti, K., Prakash, S., Ross, J.M., Levy, D. and Kinney, P.L. (2010). Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Acute Respiratory Symptoms among New York City Area Adolescents. Environ. Health Perspect., 118; 1338–1343.
Prieto-parra, L., Yohannessen, K., Brea, C., Vidal, D., Ubilla, C.A. and Ruiz-rudolph, P. (2017). Air pollution, PM2.5 composition, source factors, and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children in Santiago, Chile. Environ. Int., 101; 190–200.
Salthammer, T. (2019). Formaldehyde sources, formaldehyde concentrations and air exchange rates in European housings. Build. Environ., 150; 219–232.
Sasso, F., Izard, M., Beneteau, T., Rakotozandry, T., Ramadour, M., Annesi-maesano, I., Robin, D. and Charpin, D. (2019). 18-year evolution of asthma and allergic diseases in French urban schoolchildren in relation to indoor air pollutant levels. Respir. Med., 148; 31–36.
Schibuola, L., Scarpa, M. and Tambani, C. (2016). Natural ventilation level assessment in a school building by CO2 concentration measures. Energy Procedia, 101; 257–264.
Semotyuk, D., Volnytska, K., Tolokh, O. and Semotiuk, T. (2018). Effect of passive cigarette smoke inhalation on college students. Eur. Respir. J., 52(Suppl.62); PA4564.
Śmiełowska, M., Marć, M. and Zabiegała, B. (2017). Indoor air quality in public utility environments — a review. Env. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24; 11166–11176.
Soegiarto, G., Abdullah, M.S., Damayanti, L.A., Suseno, A. and Effendi, C. (2019). The prevalence of allergic diseases in school children of metropolitan city in Indonesia shows a similar pattern to that of developed countries. Asia Pac. Allergy, 9; 1–10.
Song, Y., Wang, M., Xie, J., Li, W., Zhang, X., Wang, T. and Tan, G. (2015). Prevalence of allergic rhinitis among elementary and middle school students in Changsha city and its impact on quality of life. J. Laryngol. Otol., 129; 1108–1114.
Stabile, L., Dell, M., Russi, A., Massimo, A. and Buonanno, G. (2017). Total Environment The effect of natural ventilation strategy on indoor air quality in schools. Sci. Total Environ., 595; 894–902.
Stern, J., Pier, J. and Litonjua, A.A. (2020). Asthma epidemiology and risk factors. Semin. Immunopathol., 42; 5–15.
Sugiyama, T., Ueda, K., Tesoro, X.S., Nakashima, A., Kinoshita, M., Matsumoto, H., Ikemori, F., Honda, A., Takano, H., Michikawa, T. and Nitta, H. (2020). Health effects of PM2.5 sources on children’s allergic and respiratory symptoms in Fukuoka, Japan. Sci. Total Environ., 709; 136023.
Suhaimi, N.F., Jalaludin, J. and Bakar, S.A. (2017). Cysteinyl leukotrienes as biomarkers of effect in linking exposure to air pollutants and respiratory inflammation among school children. Ann. Trop. Med. Public Heal., 10; 423–431.
Suhaimi, N.F., Jalaludin, J. and Juhari, M.A.M. (2020). The impact of traffic-related air pollution on lung function status and respiratory symptoms among children in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 32(3); 535–546.
Takaoka, M., Suzuki, K. and Norbäck, D. (2016). The home environment of junior high school students in Hyogo, Japan – Associations with asthma, respiratory health and reported allergies. Indoor Built Environ., 25; 81–92.
Tating, F., Hack, R. and Jetten, V. (2015). Weathering effects on discontinuity properties in sandstone in a tropical environment: case study at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 74; 427–441.
Velická, H., Puklová, V., Keder, J., Brabec, M., Malý, M., Bobák, M., Jiřík, V., Janout, V. and Kazmarová, H. (2015). Asthma Exacerbations and Symptom Variability in Children Due to Short-Term Ambient Air Pollution Changes in Ostrava, Czech Republic. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health, 23; 292–298.
Wang, J., Janson, C., Jogi, R., Forsberg, B., Gislason, T., Holm, M., Tor, K., Malinovschi, A., Sigsgaard, T., Schlünssen, V., Svanes, C., Johannessen, A., Jacobsen, R., Franklin, K.A. and Norback, D. (2021). A prospective study on the role of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, indoor painting and living in old or new buildings on asthma, rhinitis and respiratory symptoms. Environ. Res., 192; 1–10.
Wu, C.-Y., Huang, H.-Y., Pan, W.-C., Liao, S.-L., Hua, M.-C., Tsai, M., Lai, S., Yeh, K., Chen, L., Huang, J. and Yao, T. (2021). Allergic diseases attributable to atopy in a population sample of Asian children. Sci. Rep., 11; 1–8.
Yeatts, K.B., El-sadig, M., Leith, D., Kalsbeek, W., Al-maskari, F., Couper, D., Funk, W.E., Zoubeidi, T., Chan, R.L., Trent, C.B., Davidson, C.A., Boundy, M.G., Kassab, M.M., Hasan, M.Y., Rusyn, I., Gibson, J.M. and Olshan, A.F. (2012). Indoor Air Pollutants and Health in the United Arab Emirates. Environ. Health Perspect., 120; 687–694.