Application of Ceramic Filter and Reverse Osmosis Membrane for Produced Water Treatment

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Graduate Program of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Technology, Sriwijaya University, Jl. Srijaya Negara, Bukit Besar, Palembang 30139, South Sumatera, Indonesia

2 Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sriwijaya University, Jl. Raya Palembang – Prabumulih KM 32 Indralaya, Ogan Ilir 30662, South Sumatera, Indonesia


The effect of ceramic filter composition on improving the quality of produced water by reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), barium, and phenol for reverse osmosis (RO) treatment was investigated in the present work. The ceramic filters were fabricated using a residue catalytic cracking (RCC) unit spent catalyst with and without activation, clay, and Dioscorea hispida starch (DHS), at various compositions.  The result showed that the optimum removal of TDS, barium, and phenol in produced water was achieved at a flow rate of sample 7 L/min and an operating time of 90 min. Ceramic filter with the composition of 60% spent catalyst without activation: 37.5% clay: 2.5% DHS reduced 34.84% TDS, 27.97% barium, and 71.11% phenol. While, the ceramic filter with a composition of 37.5% activated spent catalyst: 60% clay: 2.5% DHS was removed 51.44% TDS, 27.93% barium, and 85.29% phenol from produced water. The next steps of treatment of filtrates of the ceramic filter using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane showed that the permeate met the Indonesian standard for oil and gas wastewater. In addition, adsorption of TDS, barium, and phenol from produced water was dominated by clay composition in the ceramic filter.


Al-Ghouti, M. A., Al-Kaabi, M. A., Ashfaq, M. Y. and Da’na, D. A. (2019). Produced water characteristics, treatment and reuse: A review. J. Water. Pros. Eng., 28; 222–239. 
Al-Kaabi, M. A., Al-Ghouti, M. A., Ashfaq, M. Y. M., Ahmed, T. and Zouari, N. (2019). An integrated approach for produced water treatment using microemulsions  activated carbon. J. Water. Pros. Eng., 31; 100830. 
Amakiria, K. T., Canon, A. R., Marco, M. and Dimakisa, A. A. (2022). Review of oilfield produced water treatment technologies. Chemosphere, 298; 134064
Annan, E., Agyei-Tuffour, B., Bensah, Y. D., Konadu, D. S., Yaya, A., Onwona-Agyeman, B. and Nyankson, E. (2018). Application of clay ceramics and nanotechnology in water treatment: A review. Cogent Eng, 5(1); 1–35. 
Bezerra, B. G. P., Parodia, A., Da Silva, D. R. and Pergher, S. B. C. (2019). Cleaning produced water: A study of cation and anion removal using different adsorbents. J. Env. Chem. Eng., 7(2); 103006
Chaukura, N., Chiworeso, R., Gwenzi, W., Motsa, M. M., Munzeiwa, W., Moyo, W., Chikurunhe, I. and Nkambule, T. T. I. (2020). A new generation low-cost biochar-clay composite ‘biscuit’ ceramic filter for point-of-use water treatment. Appl. Clay Sci., 185; 105409. 
Chiranjeevi, T., Pragya, R., Gupta, S., Gokak, D. T. and Bhargava, S. (2016). Minimization of Waste Spent Catalyst in Refineries. Procedia Environ. Sci., 35; 610–617. 
Dehmani, Y., Alrashdi, A. A., Lgaz, H., Lamhasni, T., Abouarnadasse, S. and Chung, I. M. (2020). Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by adsorption onto hematite (α-Fe2O3): Mechanism exploration from both experimental and theoretical studies. Arabian J. Chem., 13(5); 5474–5486. 
Dickhout, J. M., Moreno, J., Biesheuvel, P. M., Boels, L., Lammertink, R. G. H. and de Vos, W. M. (2017). Produced water treatment by membranes: A review from a colloidal perspective. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 487; 523–534. 
Dudek, M., Vik, E. A., Aanesen, S. V. and Øye, G. (2020). Colloid chemistry and experimental techniques for understanding fundamental behaviour of produced water in oil and gas production. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 276; 102105. 
Fakhru’l-Razi, A., Pendashteh, A., Abdullah, L. C., Biak, D. R. A., Madaeni, S. S. and Abidin, Z. Z. (2009). Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment. J. Hazard. Mater., 170(2–3); 530–551. 
Gregory, K. B., Vidic, R. D. and Dzombak, D. A. (2011). Water management challenges associated with the production of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing. Elements, 7(3); 181–186. 
Hailemariam, R. H., Woo, Y. C., Damtie, M. M., Kim, B. C., Park, K. D. and Choi, J. S. (2020). Reverse osmosis membrane fabrication and modification technologies and future trends: A review. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 276; 102100. 
Hamad, H. T. (2021). Removal of phenol and inorganic metals from wastewater using activated ceramic. J. King Saud Univ. Eng. Sci., 33(4); 221–226. 
Hendges, L. T., Costa, T. C., Temochko, B., Gómez González, S. Y., Mazur, L. P., Marinho, B. A., da Silva, A., Weschenfelder, S. E., de Souza, A. A. U. and de Souza, S. M. A. G. U. (2021). Adsorption and desorption of water-soluble naphthenic acid in simulated offshore oilfield produced water. Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 145; 262–272. 
Jang, E., Jeong, S. and Chung, E. (2017). Application of three different water treatment technologies to shale gas produced water. Geosystem Engineering, 20(2); 104–110. 
Johnston, J., Lou, J. and Tilton, N. (2022). Application of projection methods to simulating mass transport in reverse osmosis systems. Comput. Fluids, 232; 105189. 
Kamoun, N., Hajjeji, W., Abid, R., Rodriguez, M. A. and Jamoussi, F. (2020). Elaboration and properties of low-cost ceramic microfiltration membrane from local Tunisian clay for wastewater treatment. Ceramica, 66(380); 386–393. 
Lin, L., Jiang, W., Chen, L., Xu, P. and Wang, H. (2020). Treatment of produced water with photocatalysis: Recent advances, affecting factors and future research prospects. Catalysts, 10(8); 924. 
Lu, G., Lu, X. and Liu, P. (2020). Reactivation of spent FCC catalyst by mixed acid leaching for efficient catalytic cracking. J. Ind. Eng. Chem.  92; 236–242. 
Mubiayi, M. P., Muleja, A.M. and Mamba, B.B. (2021). Data on physicochemical properties of natural clay and natural clay/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite materials for various applications possibilities. Data Brief, 39; 107682. 
Nasir, S. and Faizal, S. (2016). Ceramic Filters And Their Application For Cadmium Removal From Pulp Industry Effluent. Int. J. Technol., 5; 786–794.
Ngoc Dung, T. T., Phan Thi, L. A., Nam, V. N., Nhan, T. T. and Quang, D. V. (2019). Preparation of silver nanoparticle-containing ceramic filter by in-situ reduction and application for water disinfection. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 7(3); 103176. 
Pertamina. (2017). Capability in Creating Value. 1–148.
Quallal, H. (2019). Kinetic, isotherm and mechanism investigations of the removal of phenols from water by raw and calcined clays. Heliyon, 5(5);  e01616.
Reddy, B. S., Maurya, A. K., V E, S., Narayana, P. L., Reddy, M. H., Baazeem, A., Cho, K. K. and Reddy, N. S. (2021). Prediction of batch sorption of barium and strontium from saline water. Environ. Res., 197; 111107. 
Uddin, M. K. (2017). A review on the adsorption of heavy metals by clay minerals, with special focus on the past decade. Chem. Eng. J., 308; 438–462.
Villegas, L. G. C., Mashhadi, N., Chen, M., Mukherjee, D., Taylor, K. E. and Biswas, N. (2016). A Short Review of Techniques for Phenol Removal from Wastewater. Curr. Pollut. Rep., 2(3); 157–167. 
Wang, J. and Chen, C. (2009). Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnol. Adv., 27(2); 195–226. 
Yang, Z., Yan, J. and Wang, F. (2018). Pore structure of kapok fiber. Cellulose, 25(6); 3219–3227. 
Ye, Z. and Prigiobbe, V. (2020). Transport of produced water through reactive porous media. Water Research, 185; 116258