Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters of Cadmium Ion Removal by using the Orange Wood-Synthesized Activated Carbon Nanoparticles Modified with Cysteine

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Chemical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.


Activated carbon is known an as appropriate adsorbent due to its high adsorption capacity for most pollutants, especially heavy metals. In the present study, activated carbon was synthesized from orange wood by employing the chemical activation method. Additionally, cysteine amino acid was used to modify the activated carbon surface, leading to an enhancement in adsorption ability because of having a nitrogen group. Based on the results, the adsorption capacity of the modified activated carbon was obtained at 120 mg g-1 adsorbent. The parameters affecting adsorption such as the amount of used adsorbent, as well as solution pH, primary concentration, and contact time were optimized, followed by performing the adsorption process under optimal conditions. The optimal adsorption conditions included the pH of 6, contact time of 60 min, adsorbent amount of 50 mg, and primary cadmium concentration of 80 ppm. Further, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were assessed and optimized. The results of which represented the best fit between adsorption with Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results represented that the quasi-second-order model with a higher regression coefficient (R2 = 0.97) described the experimental data better than the quasi-first-order one (R2 = 0.83). The adherence of adsorption kinetics to the pseudo-second-order model suggested a chemical interaction as the rate-determining step. Regarding adsorption thermodynamics, the effect of temperature was examined on adsorption by using Van't Hoff's equations, which reflect the endothermicity of the process.


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