The Optimal Performances of Starches from two Cassava varieties as Bioflocculants for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University (formerly Federal University of Agriculture), P.M.B. 2373 Makurdi, Nigeria


The optimal performances of starches produced from two cassava varieties–Manihot aipi (SMA) and Manihot palmate (SMP) as bioflocculants for the treatment of textile wastewater were investigated in this study. The central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the effects of varying dosages of each cassava starch, wastewater-pH, and settling time on the turbidity removal from the wastewater with alum as the primary coagulant. Highly significant second-order multilinear quadratic regression models were developed from the experimental data, resulting in a very high coefficient of determination (r2) values of 0.999 for the SMA and 1.000 for the SMP models. The optimum cassava doses of 50 and 150 mg/L, pH-values of 6.5 and 8.0, and settling times of 95 and 77 minutes led to predictive maximum turbidity removals of 98.35 and 88.87%% with desirability functions of 0.95 and 0.63 for the SMA and SMP, respectively. The corresponding observed turbidity removal recorded at these optimum conditions were 88.72% and 88.52% for the SMA and SMP, respectively. At these optimum conditions, there was no significant difference between the predicted and observed turbidity removed from the wastewater at a p≤0.05 significance level. Verification of the Jar tests showed a good agreement between the experimental data and the models and confirmed that the SMA was superior to the SMP in supporting the alum to remove turbidity from the textile wastewater. As a result, the study revealed that Manihot aipi starch has more flocculating capability than Manihot palmate for the treatment of textile wastewater.


Adamu, A., Adie, D. and Alka, U. (2014). A Comparative Study of the Use of Cassava Species and Alum in Waste Water Treatment. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 33(2), 170. 
Ahmad, A., Abdullah, R. S. S., Hasan, H. A., Othman, A. R. and Ismail, N. ’Izzati. (2021). Plant-based versus metal-based coagulants in aquaculture wastewater treatment: Effect of mass ratio and settling time. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 43(August), 102269. 
Akpa, J. G. (2012). Starch-based adhesive. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1(4), 219–214. 
Ali, N. S. M., Alalwan, H. A., Alminshid, A. H. and Mohammed, M. M. (2022). Synthesis and Characterization of Fe3O4-SiO2 Nanoparticles as Adsorbent Material for Methyl Blue Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions. Pollution, 8(1), 295–302. 
Arunarajeswari, P., Mathavan, T., Divya, A. and Benial, A. M. F. (2020). Synthetic approach of organic acid assisted δ-Al2O3 nanorods toward engineering surface chemistry. Surfaces and Interfaces, 18(August 2019), 100421. 
Association, A. P. H., Association, A. W. W. and Federation, W. E. (2017). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (R. B. B. A. D. E. E. W. Rice, Ed.) (23rd ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association, 800| Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710. 
Awomeso, J. A., Taiwo, A. M., Gbadebo, A. M. and Adenowo, J. A. (2010). Studies on the pollution of water body by textile industry effluents in Lagos, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. …, 5(4), 353–359. 
Badrus, Z. (2018). Potential of Natural Flocculant in Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment Process. E3S Web of Conferences, 73(05006), 2–6. 
Can, O. T. and Kobya, M. (2006). Treatment of the textile wastewater by combined electrocoagulation. Chemosphere, 62, 181–187. 
Dawood, A. S. and Li, Y. (2013). Modeling and Optimization of New Flocculant Dosage and pH for Flocculation: Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater. Water, 5, 342–355. 
Dehghanian, N., Ghaedi, M., Ansari, A., Ghaedi, A., Vafaei, A., Asif, M., … Distantina, S. (2016). A random forest approach for predicting the removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto tin sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(20), 9272–9285. 
Dehghanian, N., Ghaedi, M., Ansari, A., Ghaedi, A., Vafaei, A., Asif, M., … Gupta, V. K. (2016). A random forest approach for predicting the removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto tin sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(20), 9272–9285. 
dos Santos, J. D., Veit, M. T., Juchen, P. T., da Cunha Gonçalves, G., Palácio, S. M. and Fagundes-Klen, M. (2018). Use of different coagulants for cassava processing wastewater treatment. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(2), 1821–1827. 
Durotoye, T. O., Adeyemi, A. A. and Omole, D. O. (2018). Impact assessment of wastewater discharge from a textile industry in Lagos , Nigeria Impact assessment of wastewater discharge from a textile industry in Lagos , Nigeria. Cogent Engineering, 5(1), 1–11. 
Freitas, T. K. F. S., Oliveira, V. M., de Souza, M. T. F., Geraldino, H. C. L., Almeida, V. C., Fávaro, S. L. and Garcia, J. C. (2015). Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for treatment of industrial textile wastewater using okra (A. esculentus) mucilage as natural coagulant. Industrial Crops and Products, 76, 538–544. 
Jabbar, H. A. and Alatabe, J. M. (2021). Treatment Oilfield Produced Water using Coagulation/Flocculation Process (case study: Alahdab Oilfield). Production, 7(4), 787–797. 
Jyothi, A. N., Sasikiran, K., Nambisan, B. and Balagopalan, C. (2005). Optimisation of glutamic acid production from cassava starch factory residues using Brevibacterium divaricatum. Process Biochemistry, 40(11), 3576–3579. 
Kaavessina, M. and Distantina, S. (2017). Synthesis of grafted flocculants based on several kinds of starch and its performance in water turbidity removal. MATEC Web of Conferences, 101(01003). 
Krishna, M. K., Mohan, T. M., Mahalingegowda, R. M. and Kumar, G. (2017). “Decolourisation of Synthetic and Textile Wastewater by Fenton Process.” IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11(3), 16–24. 
Kumar, V., Al-Gheethi, A., Asharuddin, S. M. and Othman, N. (2020a). Potential of cassava peels as a sustainable coagulant aid for institutional wastewater treatment: Characterisation, optimisation and techno-economic analysis. Chemical Engineering Journal, 127642. 
Kumar, V., Othman, N. and Mohd-Asharuddin, S. (2020b). Partial replacement of alum by using natural coagulant aid to remove turbidity from institutional wastewater. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 12(4), 241–251.
Lugo-Arias, J., Lugo-Arias, E., Ovallos-Gazabon, D., Arango, J., de la Puente, M. and Silva, J. (2020). Effectiveness of the mixture of nopal and cassava starch as clarifying substances in water purification: A case study in Colombia. Heliyon, 6(6). 
Mohd-Salleh, S. N. A., Mohd-Zin, N. S. and Othman, N. (2019). A review of wastewater treatment using natural material and its potential as aid and composite coagulant. Sains Malaysiana, 48(1), 155–164. 
Mokif, L. A., Al-sareji, O. J. O. and Obaid, Z. H. (2020). Removal of COD and TOC from domestic wastewater by using alum and peels of sunflowers seeds as natural coagulant Removal of COD and TOC from domestic wastewater by using alum and peels of sunflowers seeds as natural coagulant. EuraAsian Journal of BioSciences, 14(October), 2011–2014.
Obueh, H. O. and Kolawole, S. E. (2016). Comparative Study on the Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Compositions of Sweet and Bitter Cassava Varieties for Garri Production. Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences, 3(3). 
Odjegba J.V. and Bamgbose, N. M. (2012). Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6(11), 438–445. 
Padhiyar, H., Thanki, A., Kumar Singh, N., Pandey, S., Yadav, M. and Chand Yadav, T. (2020). Parametric and kinetic investigations on segregated and mixed textile effluent streams using Moringa oleifera seed powders of different sizes. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 34, 101159. 
Pharmacopoeia, I. (2022). Official standard grades of powder. Retrieved February 18, 2022, from
Prasad, R. and Yadav, K. D. (2021). Optimisation of Crystal Violet and Methylene Blue Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution onto Water Hyacinth using RSM. Pollution, 7(4), 799–814. 
Rasool, M. A., Tavakoli, B., Chaibakhsh, N., Pendashteh, A. R., Mirroshandel, A. S., Vigneshwaran, S., … Chand Yadav, T. (2020). Starch-based adhesive. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6(2), 219–214. 
Regti, A., Laamari, M. R., Stiriba, S. E. and El Haddad, M. (2017). Use of response factorial design for process optimization of basic dye adsorption onto activated carbon derived from Persea species. Microchemical Journal, 130, 129–136. 
Río, A. I., Fernández, J., Molina, J., Bonastre, J. and Cases, F. (2011). Electrochemical treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing a sulphonated azo dye . Determination of naphthalenesulphonic compounds produced as main by-products. Desalination, 273(2–3), 428–435. 
Saravanan, J., Priyadharshini, D., Soundammal, A., Sudha, G. and Suriyakala, K. (2017). Wastewater Treatment using Natural Coagulants. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 4(3), 40–42. 
Sarkiyayi, S. and Agar, T. M. (2010). Comparative analysis on the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the sweet and bitter cassava varieties. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(6), 328–334.
Shanavas, S., Padmaja, G., Moorthy, S. N., Sajeev, M. S. and Sheriff, J. T. (2011). Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(2), 901–909. 
Su, H., Cheng, J., Zhou, J., Song, W. and Cen, K. (2009). Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(4), 1780–1786. 
Usefi, S. and Asadi-Ghalhari, M. (2019). Modeling and Optimization of the Coagulation – Flocculation Process in Turbidity Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Rice Starch. Pollution, 5(3), 623–636.
Verma, A. K., Dash, R. R. and Bhunia, P. (2012). A review on chemical coagulation / fl occulation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters. Journal of Environmental Management, 93(1), 154–168. 
Vigneshwaran, S., Karthikeyan, P., Sirajudheen, P. and Meenakshi, S. (2020). Optimization of sustainable chitosan/Moringa. oleifera as coagulant aid for the treatment of synthetic turbid water – A systemic study. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2, 132–140. 
Villabona-ortíz, Á., Tejada-tovar, C., Millán-aníbal, M. and Granados-, C. (2021). Reduction of Turbidity in Waters Using Cassava Starch as a Natural Coagulant Reducción de Turbidez en Aguas Usando Almidón de Yuca como Coagulante Natural.
Wang, Z., Mhaske, P., Farahnaky, A., Kasapis, S. and Majzoobi, M. (2022). Cassava starch: Chemical modification and its impact on functional properties and digestibility, a review. Food Hydrocolloids, 107542. 
Yu, X. and Fu, Y. (2020). Progress in Research and Application of Natural Polymer Coagulants. E3S Web of Conferences, 143(02042), 1–3. 
Yusuf, R. O. and Sonibare, J. A. (2004). Characterization of textile industries’ effluents in Kaduna, Nigeria and pollution implications. Global Nest Journal, 6(1), 212–221. 
Zaman, B., Hardyanti, N., Arief Budiharjo, M., Budi Prasetyo, S., Ramadhandi, A. and Listiyawati, A. T. (2020). Natural flocculant vs chemical flocculant where is better to used in wastewater treatment. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 852(1). 
Zangooei, H., Delnavaz, M. and Asadollahfardi, G. (2016). Prediction of coagulation and flocculation processes using ANN models and fuzzy regression. Water Science and Technology, 74(6), 1296–1311.