Biomarker Responses in Sclerophrys regularis (Anura: Bufonidae) Exposed to Atrazine and Nitrate

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.


The impact of atrazine and nitrate, the most used pesticide and fertilizer, on the health of Sclerophrys regularis was investigated in this study. We exposed the tadpole of Sclerophrys regularis to atrazine and nitrates to assess abnormalities and genotoxicity as biomarkers for environmental impacts. The proportional malformed toads were shown to be high when treated with nitrate alone (17%) or in combination (13%) or even treated with atrazine alone (the minimal, 5%), limbs and tail deformities are the most observed. Also, abnormal activity and movement were detected at all treated groups. In addition, Genotoxicity was measured by micronucleus test (MN) in detection of nuclear abnormalities in given species. The results indicate that individuals exposed to atrazine or nitrate or that exposed to both, exhibited a significantly higher degree (p < 0.01) of nuclear lesions. These results constitute key assessment of developing abnormalities and MN test in this species in Egypt and suggest that developing abnormalities and /or MN test and the degree of nuclear lesions of RBCs can be a useful indicator of the degree of environmental stress and ecosystem disrupting experienced by amphibian populations.


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