Use of Eggshell as a Low-Cost Alternative Adsorbent for Elimination of Fluoride from Groundwater

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Laboratory of Water Engineering and Environment within the Saharian milieu, Department of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, PO Box 511, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria

2 Laboratory of Water Engineering and Environment within the Saharian milieu, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, PO Box 511, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria



This paper aims to study the possibility of providing a low-cost alternative for the adsorbents used in the fluoride adsorption from water by using eggshells. Indeed, eggshells were used as an adsorbent for fluoride adsorption from a drinking groundwater sample containing (2.14 mg/l) of fluoride. The eggshells were crushed and sieved into three particle sizes (0.2, 0.5, and 1mm) and then heated at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 250°C. XRD, FT-IR, pHpzc, and TG/DTA analysis were used for the characterization of the adsorbents.  Adsorption batch experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption capacity of eggshell powder such as, particle size, preparation temperature, contact time, and adsorbent dose. A spectrophotometer UV-VIS was used to assess fluoride removal efficiency. The eggshell powder heated at 250°C with 0.2mm of particle size was found to be the most efficient adsorbent, with a maximum fluoride removal efficiency of 51.4%, a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.052mg/g, and a residual fluoride concentration of 1.1mg/l within 150 minutes. The data of the adsorption kinetic on ES250°0.2 were successfully fitted with the pseudo-second-order model with a satisfying coefficient of determination (R2=0.993). The results of the intra-particle diffusion model showed a multi-linearity, revealing that the diffusion of fluoride into the adsorbent was by two stages with diffusion rate constants of Ki = 0.007 (mg /g/min1/2) and Ki = 0.001(mg /g/min1/2) for the first and second stage respectively. An adsorbent dose of 1.5g and 1 hour of contact time were sufficient to decrease fluoride concentration from 2.14 to 1.1mg/l.


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