Ionic Composition of Winter Atmospheric Precipitation in the Urban Area (South of West Siberia, Russia)

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Institute for Water and Environmental Problems Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IWEP SB RAS), 1, Molodezhnaya St., Barnaul, 656038, Altai Krai, Russia



The work evaluates the urban snow cover pollution and determines the level of the city influence on the pollution of the urban atmosphere with major ions (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium) during the winter period (on the case study of Barnaul city, 2014-2019). The priority ions that determine the high pollution of the urban atmosphere in winter are (nitrite, chloride, sodium), the sources of which are the exhaust of motor vehicles (nitrite) and the using of anti-ice reagents (chloride, sodium). The study showed an increase of the major ions in the urban snow cover (with the exception of nitrate ion) by more than two times compared with the regional and more than six times with the global natural background. To study the spatial features of the snow cover pollution interpolation surfaces of the spatial distribution of priority ions in the study area were constructed.


Adamiec, E., Wieszala, R., Strzebonska, M. and Jarosz-Krzeminska, E. (2013). An attempt to identify traffic related elements in snow. Geol., Geophys. Environ., 39(4), 317–329. 
Alekseev, V.R. (2013). Snow cover as an indicator of cumulative land pollution. Ice and Snow., 53(1), 127–140 (in Russian).
Alves, D.D., Backes, E., Rocha-Uriatt, L., Riegel, R.P., Müller de Quevedo, D., Schmitt J.L., Marques da Costa, G. and Osório, D.M.M. (2018). Chemical composition of rainwater in the Sinos River Basin, Southern Brazil: a source apportionment study. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25, 24150–24161. 
Bezuglaya, E.Y., Ivleva, T.P. and Smirnova, I.V. (2013). Fifty years to the air pollution observations. Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 38(9), 645–652 (in Russian).
Dubowski, Y., Colussi, A.J., Boxe, C. and Hoffmann, M.R. (2002). Monotonic Increase of Nitrite Yields in the Photolysis of Nitrate in Ice and Water between 238 and 294 K. J. Phys. Chem. A., 106, 6967–6971.
Ermolov, Yu.V. and Smolentsev, N.B. (2020). Winter background aerosol deposition in the south-eastern part of Western Siberia. Atmospheric Ocean. Opt., 33(1), 75–81 (in Russian).
Filimonova, L.M., Bychinskii, V.A. and Parshin, A.V. (2015). Air pollution assessment in the area of aluminum production by snow geochemical survey. Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 40(10), 691–698.
Han, S., Zhang, Y., Wu, J., Zhang, X., Tian, Y., Wang, Y., Ding, J., Yan, W., Bi, X., Shi, G., Cai, Z., Yao, Q., Huang, H. and Feng, Y. (2015). Evaluation of regional background particulate matter concentration based on vertical distribution characteristics. Atmospheric Chem. Phys., 15, 11165–11177.
Keene, W.C., Pszenny, A.A., Galloway, J.N. and Hawley, M.E. (1986). Sea-salt corrections and interpretation of constituent ratios in marine precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 91(D6), 6647–6658. 
Kokovkin, V.V., Raputa, V.F., Morozov, S.V., Shuvaeva, O.V. and Devyatova, A.Yu. (2011). Investigation of snow cover high aerosol contamination areas in the city of Novosibirsk. GEO-SIBIR., 4, 83–87 (in Russian).
Korobka, O.V., Ovcharenko, E.A., Eirikh, A.N., Serykh, T.G., Dryupina, E.Yu. and Papina, T.S. (2014). Chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation in Barnaul. Polzunovskiy vestnik., 4–2, 80–83 (in Russian).
Kuoppamaki, K., Setala, H., Rantalainen, A-L. and Kotze, D.J. (2014). Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic. Environ. Pollut., 195, 56–63. 
Kuzu, S.L., Yavuz, E., Akyüz, E., Saral, A., Akkoyunlu, B.O., Özdemir, H., Demir, G. and Ünal, A. (2020). Black carbon and size-segregated elemental carbon, organic carbon compositions in a megacity: a case study for Istanbul. Air Qual. Atmos. Health., 13, 827–837. 
Mashkin, D.V., Gushchin, A.A., Izvekova, T.V. and Borovova, Yu.G. (2016). Experience in the use of snow cover as a universal indicator of pollution in urbanized areas. The Bulletin of Irkutsk state university. Series «Biology. Ecology»., 18, 58–73 (in Russian).
Meng, Y., Zhao, Y., Li, R., Li, J., Gui, L., Kong, L. and Fu, H. (2019). Characterization of inorganic ions in rainwater in the megacity of Shanghai: Spatiotemporal variations and source apportionment. Atmos. Res., 222(1), 12–24. 
Migliavacca, D., Teixeira, E., Wiegand, F., Machado A.C.M. and Sanchez J. (2005). Atmospheric precipitation and chemical composition of an urban site, Guaíba hydrographic basin, Brazil. Atmospheric Environ., 39, 1829–1844. 
Mihailovic, A., Vasic, V., Ninkov, J., Eric, S., Ralevic, N., Nemes, T. and Antic, A. (2014). Multivariate analysis of the contents of metals in urban snow near traffic lanes in Novi Sad, Serbia. J. Serbian Chem. Soc., 79(2), 265–276. 
Noskova, T.V., Eirikh, A.N., Dryupina, E.Yu., Serykh, T.G., Ovcharenko, E.A. and Papina, T.S. (2014). Study of the quality of the snow cover in Barnaul. Polzunovskiy vestnik., 3, 208–212 (in Russian).
Olivier, S., Blaser, C., Brutsch, S., Frolova, N., Gaggeler, H.W., Henderson, K.A., Palmer, A.S., Papina, T. and Schwikowski, M. (2006). Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai. J. Geophys. Res., 111(D5). 
Ovcharenko, E.A., Eyrikh, S.S. and Papina, T.S. (2015). Optimization of conditions for the chromatographic separation of cations by ion chromatography method in atmospheric precipitation analysis. Voda: himiya i ekologiya., 89(11), 69–75 (in Russian).
Papina, T.S., Eirikh, A.N., Malygina, N.S., Eyrikh, S.S., Ostanin, O.V. and Yashina, T.V. (2018). Microelement and stable isotopic composition of snowpack in the Katunsky biosphere reserve (Altai Republic). Ice and Snow., 58(1), 41–55 (in Russian).
Paramonov, M., Gronholm, T. and Virkkula, A. (2011). Below cloud scavenging of aerosol particles by snow at an urban site in Finland. Boreal Environ. Res., 16(4), 304–320.
Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L. and McMahon, T.A. (2007). Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 4(2), 439–473.
Prokacheva, V.G. and Usachev, V.F. (2013). Snow cover as an indicator of cumulative man-made pollution in the area of influence of cities and roads. Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 38(3), 206–215.
Report. (2019). On the state and environmental protection of the city district - the city of Barnaul in the Altai territory in 2018. (Barnaul) (in Russia).
Sakerin, S.M., Chernov, D.G., Kabanov, D.M., Kozlov, V.S., Panchenko, M.V., Polkin, V.V. and Radionov, V.F. (2012). Preliminary results of studying the aerosol characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of Barentsburg, Spitsbergen. Arct. Antarct. Res., 1, 20–31 (in Russian).
Smolyakov, B.S., Shinkorenko, M.P., Pavluik, L.A. and Filimonova, S.N. (2006). Annual and seasonal trends in ion composition of atmospheric aerosol in West Sybreia during 1996-2004. Atmospheric Ocean. Opt., 19(6), 492–498 (in Russian).
Svistov, P.F. (2011). Anthropogenic precipitation: its origin, composition and properties. Ecology of urban areas., 1, 39–46 (in Russian).
Sun, T., Sun, R., Muhammad Sadiq Khan and Liding Chen. (2021). Urbanization increased annual precipitation in temperate climate zone: A case in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of North China. Ecol. Indic., 126, 107621. 
US EPA SESDPROC-206 Operating Procedure for Field Equipment Cleaning and Decontamination.
Yavuz, E., Kuzu, L., Kanat, G. and Vardar, N. (2021). Investigating the Combined Use of Enrichment Factor and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Modelling for Precipitation Sample Source Identification: A Case Study in North Carolina, USA. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 81, 182–188. 
Zharnikov, V.B., Pas’ko, O.A., Ushakova, N.S. and Makarcova, E.S. (2019). On the content of the monitoring of snow dumps and their influence of the lands of northern cities (on the example of Tomsk city). Vestnik SGUGiT., 24(1), 174–191 (in Russian).