Thresholds Value of Soil Trace Elements for the Suitability of Eucalyptus (The Case Study of Guadiamar Green Corridor)

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Evenor-Tech "Technology-Based Company focus on Solutions for Soil Use and protection". Centro de Empresas Pabellón de Italia Business Center, 5th floor. C/ Isaac Newton, 4. Science and Technology Park Cartuja, 41092, Seville, Spain

2 University of Seville, Department of Statistics and Operational Research. Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012, Seville, Spain



The development of suitability species models look for the availability to growth in a study area. These models can be used for different targets. In this research, a suitability model of Eucalyptus has been developed to soils contaminated by trace elements management. Guadiamar Green Corridor has been selected due to the huge data available regarding trace elements, forestry species and so on. Logistic regression (LR) and Random Forest (RF), as popular machine learning model, were applied in a geodatabase from Guadiamar Green Corridor with more of 20 years of data. This database is composed by soil physical and chemical variables, climate (temperature min and max, annual precipitation), forestry species. The results show the poor performance of LR and RF applied directly over the unbalanced training set. However, when Up-sampling or SMOTE are applied, both procedures improve its sensitivity, however, RF show more improve that LR. The methodology applied can help to determine the potential distribution of Eucalyptus in similar Mediterranean areas and extended to different areas according to Soil, Climate and Trace Elements data. Finally, the models developed under this research work can be used to reduce human and environmental health by trace elements taking into account local conditions but also climate change scenarios.


Ali, H., Khan, E. and Sajad, M.A. (2013). Phytoremediation of heavy metals – Concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91 (7). DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.075
Anaya-Romero, M. (2004). Modelo de distribución potencial de usos forestales basado en parámetros edáficos, geomorfológicos, climáticos y topográficos. PhD. University of Seville, Seville, Spain
Anaya-Romero, M., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Ibáñez, B. and Marañón, T. (2016). Evaluation of forest ecosystem services in Mediterranean areas. Ecosystem services, 20, 82-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.07.002
Arriagada, C.A., Herrera, M.A., Garcia-Romera, I. and Ocampo, J.A. (2004). Tolerance to Cd of soybean (Glycine max) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprobe fungi. Symbiosis 36, 285–299.
Austin, M.P., Nicholls, N.O. and Margules, C.R. (1990). Measurement of the Realized Qualitative Niche: Environmental Niches of Five Eucalyptus Species. Ecological Society of America,  60(2), 161-177.
Bini C. (2009). Soil: a Precious Natural Resource. Conservation of Natural Resources. Venezia, Nova Science Publisher: 1–48.
Blanco-Velázquez, FJ., Muñoz-Vallés, S. and Anaya-Romero, M. (2019). Assessment of sugar beet lime measure efficiency for soil contamination in a Mediterranean Ecosystem. The case study of Guadiamar Green Corridor (SW Spain). Catena, 178, 163-171.
Blanco-Velázquez FJ, Pino-Mejías R. and Anaya-Romero M. (2020). Evaluating the provision of ecosystem services to support phytoremediation measures for countering soil contamination. A case-study of the Guadiamar Green Corridor (SW Spain). LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT.
Borja, F., López-Geta, J.A., Martín-Machuca, M., Mantecón, R., Mediavilla, C., del Olmo, P., Palancar, M. and Vives, R. (2001). Marco geográfico, geológico e hidrológico regional de la cuenca del Guadiamar. Boletín geológico y Minero. Special issue, 13-34. ISSN 0366-0176
Breiman, L. (2001). Random Forests. Machine Learning 45(1): 5-32.
Brus, D.J., Hengeveld, G.M., Walvoort, D.J.J., Goedhart, P.W., Heidema, A.H., Nabuurs, G.J. and Gunia, K. (2011). Statistical mapping of tree species over Europe. European Journal of Forest Research, 131(1), 145-157. 
Cerasoli, S., Caldeira, M. C., Pereira, J. S., Caudullo, G. and de Rigo, D. (2016). Eucalyptus globulus and other eucalypts in Europe:distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.,de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e01b5bb+
Chawla, N.V., Bowyer, K.W., Hall, L.O. and Kegelmeyer, W.P. (2002). SMOTE: Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique. Journal Of Artificial Intelligence Research, 16, 321-357.
De la Rosa, D., Anaya-Romero, M., Diaz-Pereira, E., Heredia, N. and Shahbazi, F. (2009). Soil specific agro-ecological strategies for sustainable land use. A case study by using MicroLEIS DSS in Sevilla Province (Spain). Land Use Policy 26: 4. DOI:
DGDRPF (2012). Cuarto Inventario Forestal Nacional. Inf. Tec., Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente.
Díaz, S. and Cabido, M. (1997) Plant Functional Types and Ecosystem Function in Relation to Global Change. Journal of Vegetation Science  8(4), 463-474. DOI: 10.2307/3237198
FAO and ITPS (2015). Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR) – Main Report. Chapter 4 Soils and Humans. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils, Rome, Italy. ISBN 978-92-5-109004-6
Fayad, U., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G. and Smith, P. (1996). From data mining to knowledge discovery in databases (a survey). AI Magazine 3(17), 37-54. 
Feranec, J., Hazeub, G., Christensenc, S. and Jaffraind, G. (2007). Corine land cover change detection in Europe (case studies of the Netherlands and Slovakia). Land Use Policy, 24, 234–247.
Granda-García, V. (2015). Severe drought tolerance of Eucalyptus globullus (Labill): from physiology to genetics. Universidad de Oviedo. Doctoral Thesis.
Hainz-Renetzeder, C., Scheineidergruber, A., Kuttner, M. and Wrbka, T. (2015). Assessing the potential supply of landscape services to support ecological restoration of degraded landscapes: A case study in the Austrian-Hungarian trans-boundary region of Lake Neusiedl. Ecological modelling, 295, 196-206
Herguido-Sevillano, E., Lavado-Contador, J.F., Schnabel, S., Pulido, M. and Ibáñez, J. (2018). Using spatial models of temporal tree dynamics to evaluate the implementation of EU afforestation policies in rangelands of SW Spain. Land Use Policy, 78, 166-175.
Hosmer, D.W. and Lemeshow, S. (1989). Applied Logistic Regression. Wiley: New York.
Iglesias-Trabado, G. and Wilstermann, D. (2008). Eucalyptus universalis, Global cultivated eucalypt forests map. Version 1.0.1 (GIT Forestry Consulting’s Eucalyptologics,
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Geneva: IPCC. ISBN 2-9169-122-4
Jacobs, M.R. (1981). Eucalyptus for planting, vol. 11 of FAO Forestry Series (Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Krapu, C. and Borsuk, M. (2019). Probabilistic programming: A review for environmental modellers. Environmental Modelling & Software, 40-48.
Landberg,  T.  and  Greger,  M.  (1996).  Differences  in  uptake  and  tolerance  to  heavy  metals  in Salix from unpolluted and polluted areas. Appl. Geochem. 11, 175–180 
Liaw, A and Wiener, M. (2002). Classification and Regression by random Forest. R News 2(3), 18--22.
Lorite, I. J., Gabaldón-Leal, C., Ruiz-Ramos, M., Belaj, A., De La Rosa, R., León, L. and Santos, C. (2018). Evaluation of olive response and adaptation strategies to climate change under semi-arid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 204, 247-261.
Madejon, P., Maranon, T., Navarro-Fernandez, C. M., Dominguez, M. T., Alegre, J. M., Robinson, B. and Murillo, J. M. (2017) Potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for phytostabilization and biomonitoring of trace-element contaminated soils. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0180240.
Madejón, E., Madejón, P., Burgos, P., Perez de Mora, F, and Cabrera, F. (2009). Trace elements, pH and organic matter evolution in contaminated soils under assisted natural remediation: A 4-year field study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 162, 931-938
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Junta de Andalucía (1999). Report on the work carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to characterize the impact of agricultural land by the discharges of the raft from the Aznalcóllar mine. Seville.
Moreira, J.M. (2007). Guía técnica del Mapa de Usos y Coberturas Vegetales del Suelo de Andalucía 1:25.000. 
Panagos, P., Liedekerke, M.V., Yigini, Y. and Montanarella, L. (2013). Contaminated sites in Europe: review of the current situation based on data collected through a European network. J. Environ. Public Health Artic. ID 158764
Pereira, G.E. (1998). Efecto de las Micorrizas Vesiculo Arbusculares en Plántulas de Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) y E. camaldulensis (Dehnh.) en Relación a la Tolerancia de Sustancias Fitotoxicas. Dissertation, University of Córdoba. Spain.
Pielke, R. A., T. Stohlgren, L. Schell, W. Parton, N. Doesken, K. Redmond, J. Moeny, McKee, T.  and Kittel, T. G. F.  (2002). Problems in evaluating regional and local trends in temperature: An example from eastern Colorado, USA, Int. J. Climatol. , 22, 421–434. DOI: 10.1002/joc.706
Pino-Mejías, R., Cubiles-de-la-Vega, M.D., Anaya-Romero, M., Pascual-Acosta, A., Jordan-Lopez, A. and Bellinfante-Crocci, N. (2010). Predicting the potential habitat of oaks with data mining models and the R System. Environmental Modelling & Software, 25(7), 826-836.
Pyatt, F.B. (2001). Copper and lead bioacumullation by Acacia retinoides and Eucalyptus torquata in sites contaminated as a consequence of extensive ancient mining activities in Cyprus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 50, 60-64. DOI: 10.1006/eesa.2001.2087
QGIS Development Team (2019). QGIS Geogrpahical Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project.
Qiu, J. and Turner, M.G. (2013). Spatial interactions among ecosystem services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (29), 12149-12154. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1310539110
R Development Core Team (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical  computing R Foundation for Statistical Computing,  Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL
Rodríguez, J. P., Beard Jr, T. D., Bennett, E. M., Cumming, G. S., Cork, S. J., Agard, J., ... & Peterson, G. D. (2006). Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecology and society, 11(1).
Shahzad, L., Tahir, A., Sharif, F., Haq, I.U. and Mukhtar, H. (2019). Assessing the impacts of changing climate on forest ecosystem services and livelihood of Bakalot mountainous communities. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 51 (4) DOI:10.30848/PJB2019-4(1
Silva-Pando, F.J. and Pino-Pérez, R. (2016). Introduction of Eucalyptus into Europe, Australian Forestry, 79:4, 283-291, DOI: 10.1080/00049158.2016.1242369
Venables, W. N. and Ripley, B. D. (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S. New York: Springer.
Zinng, F. (2014). Evaluate Long-Term Fate of Metal Contamination after Mine Spill; Assessing Contaminant Changes in Soil. The Guadiamar Case Study; Southern Spain. MSc Thesis. Wagenigen University,57 pp.