Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) in River Water and Groundwater along Bharathapuzha River Basin, India

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Technical Support Office - Marine & Offshore, Lloyd’s Register Marine and Inspection Services, Mumbai-400093, India


Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are widely used in industrial and commercial applications, leading to their release into the environment. The rapid industrialization and growing population in India make it a suitable case study to investigate PFOS contamination in environmental matrices. The purpose of this study is to investigate PFOS concentrations in river water and groundwater from several locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin and estimate PFOS intakes through drinking water. The highest PFOS level detected in the surface water is 1.3 ng/L and groundwater is 1.0 ng/L, which is significantly lower than the level of PFOS detected in major rivers of many developed countries. It is possible to attribute the low PFOS concentration to factors such as high annual precipitation, reduced industrial and municipal wastewater discharge, and relatively low emissions per capita in a region where agriculture is a major part of the economy. In addition, the daily intake of PFOS through drinking water in all age groups was below the safety threshold for cancer risk.


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