Investigating the Influence of Urban River Valleys on Meteorological Parameters at the Local Scale as a Factor for urban sustainability - Case study: Farahzad River Valley

Document Type : Original Research Paper


School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Four regions of the Farahzad River Valley with different topography were selected to fully survey it and study the effects of morphology on local climate. then one of the hot days of the month of June 2021 (June 6th) was selected because the wind speeds increase in spring. According to the comparison of the simulation results with the existing site plans, the temperature in area 3 was the highest, 39.60 degrees, and the wind speed was 3.57 m/s. On the other hand, the study and analysis of the maps showed that the temperature of the roads in regions 3 and 4 were higher than the other two regions with a temperature range of 37.69-38.40, so the presence of impervious asphalt surfaces on the roads is very effective in increasing the air temperature in these areas.  Comparisons also showed that tall buildings and vegetation create shaded areas and increase wind speed. Based on this, two scenarios were designed. In the first scenario, doubling the height of buildings increased wind speed in Region 3 by 3.42 m/s and decreased temperatures by 1.59 degrees. In the second scenario, when tall trees were planted at certain distances around the streets, the temperature in Region 3 decreased by 1.68 degrees and the wind speed increased by 1.68 m/s. The results show that the differences in the topography of urban valleys cause ventilation of the environment and that the effect of this feature in other environments is more effective through planting than through buildings.


Alavipanah, S., Wegmann, M., Qureshi, S., Weng, Q., & Koellner, T. (2015). The role of vegetation in mitigating urban land surface temperatures: A case study of Munich, Germany during the warm season. SUSTAINABILITY-BASEL, 7(4), 4689-4706.
Aleksandrowicz, O., Vuckovic, M., Kiesel, K., & Mahdavi, A. (2017). Current trends in urban heat island mitigation research: Observations based on a comprehensive research repository. Urban Clim, 21, 1-26.
Alinasab, M., & Suzanchi, K. (2012). Achieving sustainable development goals of urban river valleys based on ecological assessment (Case study: Darabad, Tehran). Naqsh Jahan journal. 3(2).51-61(In persian). 
Alobaydi, D., Bakarman, M. A., & Obeidat, B. (2016). The impact of urban form configuration on the urban heat island: the case study of Baghdad, Iraq. Procedia Engineering, 145, 820-827.
Chang, S., Jiang, Q., & Zhao, Y. (2018). Integrating CFD and GIS into the development of urban ventilation corridors: A case study in Changchun City, China. Sustainability, 10(6), 1814.
Daneshpour, S. (2011). The importance of designing and improving river valleys in an urban environment with a sustainable development approach, case study: designing the edge of Farahzad river velley, the intersection of Niayesh Highway and Hemat Highway. Shahr and Manzar journal. 3(18). 30-42(In persian).
Dinarvandi, M., Salehi, A., Yavari, A., SHakerzadeh, M. (2012). River valleys as a paradigm of natural features for urban environment conservation(Case study: Darakeh River valley). The second Conference on Environmental Planning and Management(In persian). 
Emmanuel, R., & Loconsole, A. (2015). Green infrastructure as an adaptation approach to tackling urban overheating in the Glasgow Clyde Valley Region, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 138, 71-86.
Faybishenko, B., Versteeg, R., Pastorello, G., Dwivedi, D., Varadharajan, C., & Agarwal, D. (2022). Challenging problems of quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) of meteorological time series data. Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment, 36(4), 1049-1062.
Francis, L. F. M., & Jensen, M. B. (2017). Benefits of green roofs: A systematic review of the evidence for three ecosystem services. URBAN FOR URBAN GREE, 28, 167-176.
Gago, E. J., Roldan, J., Pacheco-Torres, R., & Ordóñez, J. (2013). The city and urban heat islands: A review of strategies to mitigate adverse effects. RENEW SUST ENERG REV, 25, 749-758.
Gu, K., Fang, Y., Qian, Z., Sun, Z., & Wang, A. (2020). Spatial planning for urban ventilation corridors by urban climatology. ECOSYST HEALTH SUST, 6(1), 1747946.
Gu, K., Fang, Y., Qian, Z., Sun, Z., & Wang, A. (2020). Spatial planning for urban ventilation corridors by urban climatology. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 6(1), 1747946.
Hamada, S., Tanaka, T., & Ohta, T. (2013). Impacts of land use and topography on the cooling effect of green areas on surrounding urban areas. Urban forestry & urban greening, 12(4), 426-434.
He, B. J., Ding, L., & Prasad, D. (2019). Enhancing urban ventilation performance through the development of precinct ventilation zones: A case study based on the Greater Sydney, Australia. Sustainable Cities and Society, 47, 101472.
Hosseini, B., Nasrolahi, p. (2019). Investigating pollution distribution in urban valleys using wind direction and tree establishment approach (case study: urban context of Isfahan). Environmental Science and Technology journal. 2(21). 241- 254(In persian). 
Huang, X., & Wang, Y. (2019). Investigating the effects of 3D urban morphology on the surface urban heat island effect in urban functional zones by using high-resolution remote sensing data: A case study of Wuhan, Central China.  ISPRS J PHOTOGRAMM, 152, 119-131.
Jin, H., Cui, P., Wong, N. H., & Ignatius, M. (2018). Assessing the effects of urban morphology parameters on microclimate in Singapore to control the urban heat island effect. SUSTAINABILITY-BASEL, 10(1), 206.
Jing, L., & Liang, Y. (2021, February). The impact of tree clusters on air circulation and pollutant diffusion-urban micro scale environmental simulation based on ENVI-met. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 657, No. 1, p. 012008). IOP Publishing.
Kamal, A., Abidi, S. M. H., Mahfouz, A., Kadam, S., Rahman, A., Hassan, I. G., & Wang, L. L. (2021). Impact of urban morphology on urban microclimate and building energy loads. ENERG BUILDINGS, 253, 111499.
Karimi, B., Ghorbani, M., Ghasemi Wasme Jani, A. (2017). Assessing the role of river valley revitalization in urban tourism development (Case study: Farahzad river valley). City L. Rev., 4(3). 63-75(In persian). 
Konieczka, P. (2007). The role of and the place of method validation in the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) system. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 37(3), 173-190.
Li, X. X., & Norford, L. K. (2016). Evaluation of cool roof and vegetations in mitigating urban heat island in a tropical city, Singapore. Urban Clim, 16, 59-74.
Ma, T., & Chen, T. (2022). Outdoor ventilation evaluation and optimization based on spatial morphology analysis in Macau. Urban Climate, 46, 101335.
Manesh, S. V., Tadi, M., & Zanni, F. (2012). Integrated sustainable urban design: Neighbourhood design proceeded by sustainable urban morphology emergence. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 155, 631-642.
Osińska-Skotak, K., & Zawalich, J. (2016). Analysis of land use changes of urban ventilation corridors in Warsaw in 1992-2015. Geographia Polonica, 89(3), 345-358.
Pomerantz, M. (2018). Are cooler surfaces a cost-effect mitigation of urban heat islands?. Urban Clim, 24, 393-397.
Qiao, Z., Xu, X., Wu, F., Luo, W., Wang, F., Liu, L., & Sun, Z. (2017). Urban ventilation network model: A case study of the core zone of capital function in Beijing metropolitan area. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 526-535.
Rendón, A. M., Salazar, J. F., Palacio, C. A., & Wirth, V. (2015). Temperature inversion breakup with impacts on air quality in urban valleys influenced by topographic shading. J APPL METEOROL CLIM, 54(2), 302-321.
Rendón, A. M., Salazar, J. F., Palacio, C. A., Wirth, V., & Brötz, B. (2014). Effects of urbanization on the temperature inversion breakup in a mountain valley with implications for air quality. Journal of applied meteorology and climatology, 53(4), 840-858.
Rotach, M. W., Wohlfahrt, G., Hansel, A., Reif, M., Wagner, J., & Gohm, A. (2014). The world is not flat: Implications for the global carbon balance. B AM METEOROL SOC, 95(7), 1021-1028.
Saaroni, H., Amorim, J. H., Hiemstra, J. A., & Pearlmutter, D. (2018). Urban Green Infrastructure as a tool for urban heat mitigation: Survey of research methodologies and findings across different climatic regions. Urban Clim, 24, 94-110.
Sabatier, T., Paci, A., Canut, G., Largeron, Y., Dabas, A., Donier, J. M., & Douffet, T. (2018). Wintertime local wind dynamics from scanning doppler lidar and air quality in the Arve River valley. ATMOSPHERE-BASEL, 9(4), 118.
Sanagar, A., Rafiyan, M., Hanai, T., Monsefi, D. (2020). Reducing the impact of urban heat Islands on human heaith through changes in urban form in the hot and dry climate of Mashhad (Case study : the Checkerboard texture pattern of the Shahid neighborhood and the organic texture of the Pachenar neighborhood)( In persian). 
Santamouris, M. (2007). Heat island research in Europe: the state of the art. Adv. Build. Energy Res, 1(1), 123-150.
Saravand Consulting Engineers. (2006). Detailed plan of the second district of Tehran. Municipality of Tehran(In persian). 
Smith, I. B., & Spiga, A. (2018). Seasonal variability in winds in the north polar region of Mars.  ICARUS, 308, 188-196.
Wang, W., Wang, D., Chen, H., Wang, B., & Chen, X. (2022). Identifying urban ventilation corridors through quantitative analysis of ventilation potential and wind characteristics. BUILD ENVIRON, 214, 108943.
Wang, Y., Chen, L., & Kubota, J. (2016). The relationship between urbanization, energy use and carbon emissions: evidence from a panel of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. J CLEAN PROD, 112, 1368-1374.
Wang, Y., Zhou, D., Wang, Y., Fang, Y., Yuan, Y., & Lv, L. (2019). Comparative study of urban residential design and microclimate characteristics based on ENVI-met simulation. INDOOR BUILT ENVIRON, 28(9), 1200-1216. 
Xue, J., You, R., Liu, W., Chen, C., & Lai, D. (2020). Applications of Local Climate Zone Classification Scheme to Improve Urban Sustainability: A Bibliometric Review. Sustainability, 12(19), 8083.
Yuan, C., Adelia, A. S., Mei, S., He, W., Li, X. X., & Norford, L. (2020). Mitigating intensity of urban heat island by better understanding on urban morphology and anthropogenic heat dispersion. BUILD ENVIRON, 176, 106876.
Zandi, M. (2010). Designing the landscape of the Darabad river valley with a sustainable urban landscape. Master’s thesis in landscape approach, University of Tehran(In persian)