Ecological Risk Assessment of the Soil around Odo Iya-Alaro (Iya Alaro River) at Ojota, Lagos States, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Biological Science, College of Basic Science, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, P.M.B 21606 Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria


Human developmental activities always result to waste generation; that invariably pollute the environment, if not properly managed. The aim of this study is to determine soil quality around Odo Iya-Alaro at Ojota, Lagos. A total of 12 soil samples were collected from 0 -15 cm and 15- 30 cm at three different spots of 100 and 500 m (control) away from the bank of the river. Samples were analysed for pH, EC, NO3, TOC; Zn, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb using standard analytical methods. The results were subjected to both differential and inferential statistics using statistical package (SPSS 22.0 version). Subsequently, the data were compared with Earth crust values. The soil pollution was evaluated using pollution, ecological risk, and geo-accumulation index. Cr (50.43), Ni (29.47), and Cu (104.10) mg/kg at 100 m were higher than their controls; (12.09), (8.14), and (86.06) mg/kg respectively, but lower than their respective Earth crusts; (100), (80) except (50) mg/kg. The soil was moderately polluted with pH (1.15), Na (3.00), K (2.11), Mg (1.87), Ca (1.26) and Cu (1.21); considerably polluted with EC (3.82), TOC (3.39), and Ni (3.62); and very highly polluted with Fe (8.26). Fe (711.73) had a very high ecological risk.  The Geo – accumulation index was moderately - strongly polluted with Zn (2.61), and very strongly polluted with pH (5.37), EC (14.90), NO3 (9.66), Na (15.41), K (11.31), Mg (9.51), Ca (17.08), Fe (15.32), Cu (12.54), Cr (8.67), and Ni (7.32). The soil was polluted. and urgently needs reclamation for Garden Park (relaxation). 


Main Subjects

Adamu, C. I., Nganje, T. N., & Edet, A. (2014). Heavy metal contamination & health risk assessment associated with abandoned barite mines in Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria. Environment Nanotechnology Monitoring & Management.
Alloway, B.J. (1995) Heavy metals in soils, 2nd edition. Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Barzegar, R., Moghaddam, A. A., & Soltani, S.  (2019). Natural & anthropogenic origins of selected trace elements in the surface waters of Tabriz area, Iran. Environmental Earth Science, 78, 254. https :// 5-019-8250-z. 
Barzegar, R., Moghaddam, A. A., & Adamowski, J. (2018). Assessing the potential origins & human health risks of trace elements in groundwater: A case study in the Khoy plain, Iran. Environmental Geochemistry & Health
Egbueri, J. C. (2018). Assessment of the quality of groundwaters proximal to dumpsites in Awka & Nnewi metropolises: a comparative approach. International Journal of Energy & Water Resources. https :// 8-018-0004-1.
Finch, L. E., Hillyer, M. M., & Leopold, M. C. (2015). Quantitative analysis of heavy metals in children’s toys & jewelry: a multi-instrument multi-technique exercise in analytical chemistry & public health. Journal of Chemical Education, 92, 849–854. 
Hassan, I. A. 2022 (a). Metals Distribution in the Water Bodies around Quarry Sites in Ogun State, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 15(4): 511-531. doi
Hassan, I. A. 2022 (b). Physicochemical Characteristics of the Soil around the Quarry Sites in Ogun State, Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science. 24(2): 399 – 417.
Huang C., Bao L., Luo P., Wang Z., Li S. аnd Zeng E. (2016). Potential health risk for residents around a typical e-waste recycling zone via inhalation of size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals. J.Hazard. Mater., 317; 449-456.
Huu H.H., Rudy S., & Van Damme A., (2010) Distribution & contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cau Ong harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam, Geol. Belgica 13:  37–47.
Inobeme,A , Ajai, A.I  Iyaka,Y.A, Ndamitso,M  & Uwem, B. (2014). Determination Of Physicochemical And Heavy Metal Content Of Soil Around Paint Industries In Kaduna International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3 (8), pp 221-225
Kolawole, T.O., Olatunji, A. S., Jimoh, M. T.,  Fajemila, O. T. (2018)  Heavy Metal Contamination & Ecological Risk Assessment in Soils & Sediments of an Industrial Area in Southwestern Nigeria, Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 8 (19): 1 - 16
Maanan M.,  Saddik M., Maanan M., Chaibi M., Assobhei O., & Zourarah B., (2014) Environmental & ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Nador lagoon, Morocco, Ecol. Indic. 48:  616–626.
Mgbenu, C. N., & Egbueri, J. C. (2019). The hydrogeochemical signatures, quality indices & health risk assessment of water resources in Umunya district, southeast Nigeria. Applied Water Science, 9, 22. https :// 1-019-0900-5. 
Nouri M., & Haddioui A., (2016) Assessment of metal contamination & ecological risk in AIT Ammar abandoned Iron mine soil, Morocco, Ekológia 35 (1) 32–49.
Olatunde K.A., Sosanya P.A.,  Bada B.S.,  Ojekunle Z.O., Abdussalaam S.A. (2020) Distribution & Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils around a Major Cement Factory, Ibese, Nigeria, Scientific Africa, Elsevier  9: e00496.
Omole, D. O., & Isiorho, S. (2011). Waste management & water quality issues in coastal states of Nigeria: The Ogun state experience. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(6), 207–217. 
Omole, D. O., Isiorho, S. A., & Ndambuki, J. M. (2016). Waste management practices in Nigeria: Impacts & mitigation. In G. Wessel & J. K. Greenberg (Eds..), Geoscience for the public good & global development: Toward a sustainable future: Geological society of America special paper 520 (Vol. 520, pp. 377–386). The Geological Society of America. doi:10.1130/2016.2520(33)
Osakwe, S.A. (2014).  Heavy metal contamination & physicochemical characteristics of soils from automobile workshops in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria International Journal of Natural Science Research 2(4) 48-58.
Rosca C., Schoenberg R., Tomlinson E. & Kamber B. (2019). Combined zinc-lead isotope & trace metal assessment of recent atmospheric pollution sources recorded in Irish peatlands Sci. Total Environ., 658; 234-249.
Szynkowska M.I., Pawlaczyk A. & Maćkiewicz E. (2018). Bioaccumulation & biomagnification of trace elements in the environment K. Chojnacka, A. Saeid (Eds.). Recent Adv. Trace Elem., 249-251.
Talovskaya, A. V., Yazikov, E. G., Filimonenko, E. A., Lata, J. C., Kim, J., & Shakhova, T. S. (2018). Characterization of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of urban fossil fuelthermal power plant (Western Siberia). Environ. Technol., 39; 2288–2303.
Thanomsangad, P., Tengjaroenkul, B., & Sriuttha, M. (2019). Heavy metal accumulation in frogs surrounding an e-waste dump site & human health risk assessment. Human & Ecological Risk Assessment. https :// 039.2019.15751
Toth G., Hermann T., DaSilva M.R., Montanarella L (2016) Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the European Union with implications for food safety, Environ. Int. 88: 299 – 309.
Truchet D., Buzzi N., Negro C. & Mora M. (2020). Marcovecchio Integrative assessment of theecological risk of heavy metals in a South American estuary under human pressures Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 208.
Ukah, B. U., Igwe, O., & Ameh, P. (2018). The impact of industrial wastewater on the physicochemical & microbiological characteristics of groundwater in Ajao-Estate Lagos, Nigeria. Environ. Monitor.  Assess. 190, 235. 
US-EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2017). National Recommended Water Quality Criteria—Aquatic Life Criteria Table & Human Health Criteria Table. 
Vandervoet E., Salminen R., Eckelman M., Mudd G., Norgate T., Hischier R.( 2013) Environmental Risks & Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Lows & Cycles, A Report of the Working Group on the Global Metal Flows to the International Resource Panel, UNEP, in: (Eds.), p. 231 .
Yakovlev, E.,   Zykova, E.,   Zykov, S.,   Druzhinina, A., & Ivanchenko, N. (2022). Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution of Snow & Groundwater on the Territory of Suburban Community Garden Plots of the Arkhangelsk Agglomeration (Northwest Russia). Pollut. 8 (4): 1448-1473. https :// 10.22059/POLL.2022.342253.1456
Zhou J., Du B., Liu H., Cui H., Zhang W., Fan X., Cui J. & Zhou J. (2020). The bioavailability & contribution of the newly deposited heavy metals (copper & lead) from atmosphere to rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Hazard. Mater., 384; 121285.
Zhou J., Du B., Wang Z., Zhang W., Xu L., Fan X., Liu X. & Zhou J. (2019). Distributions & pools of lead (Pb) in a terrestrial forest ecosystem with highly elevated atmospheric Pb deposition & ecological risks to insects Sci. Total Environ., 647; 932-941.