Histomorphometry of Liver and some Blood Factors of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Different Concentrations of Ammonia

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Science, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran


Most tilapias are microphytes, but some prefer higher plants. Ammonia is one of the most important toxic compounds of nitrogen, which is a serious problem in the environment and aquaculture industry. In the present study, juvenile Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 10, 20, and 30% (96h LC50) of ammonia for two weeks, which are equivalent to 0.9, 1.8, and 2.7 mg / l, respectively. After this period, the fish were anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the caudal stalk with a heparin syringe for evaluating blood indicators. The tissue samples were taken 0.5 cm from the liver, fixed in 10% formalin buffer, and after dehydration with alcohol, clarification with xylol, blocking with paraffin, and cutting 4-6 microns thick with microtome were done. Finally, the stained slides were studied with a light microscope. The results showed phenomena such as hyperemia, nuclear hypertrophy, sinusoidal dilatation, increased melanomacrophage centers, nucleus margination, hepatocyte vacuolation, and cell necrosis in the liver. In the studies of blood serum factors with the increase of ammonia, it has been increased in  AST, ALT, and ALP compared to the control and other groups. Also, as the ammonia concentration increased, the severity of the lesions also increased. Therefore, ammonia causes changes in the structure and activity of metabolic enzymes of the liver, which must be controlled by creating the appropriate ammonia and management conditions in the aquatic environment.


Main Subjects

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