Aeration, Alum, and Kaolin Ore for Nutrient and Heavy Metal Removal from Urban Wastewater for the Purpose of Reuse and Conservation

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan, 81542, Egypt

2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Aswan University, Aswan, 81528, Egypt


Domestic and industrial wastewater contributed to some urban wastewater, which requires specific processing before being disposed into surface waters or reused for irrigation. This paper aimed to employ kaolin as an adsorbent to remove heavy metals from wastewater, as well as aeration and alum to remove nutrients. Experiment were conducted in three parts: first, involved using the aeration method to determine the ideal amount of time to remove or minimize the nutrients. Second, involves treating the solution with potassium alum using various alum doses at the obvious times to eliminate or minimize the nutrients, while third step involves treating the solution with kaolin ore with a size of < 63 µm at various doses, pH, and contact times to remove heavy metals. The findings showed that the aeration method completely removed CO3, OH, PO4, NO3, Ca, and Mn ions after contact time equal 120, 24, 192, 24, 120, and 48 hrs, respectively. Applaying alum treatment method can remove completely CO3, OH, PO4, NO3, and Mn, after contact time 120, 24, 120, 24, and 24 hrs, respectively. When Kaolin ore used as adsorbent, the removal efficiency of  Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sr, Mn, and Zn were; 92, 100, 100, 100, 94, 100, and 88 % ,respectively in 24 hours contact time. The experiment succeeds in treatment of industrial wastewater that was within the range of specified limitations for disposing into surface water or reuse in irrigation field as stated by Egyptian standard code using the three successive treatment techniques.


Main Subjects

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