Various Elements Levels in Four Freshwater Mussels Shells Obtained from Gölbaşı Lake, Turkey

Document Type : Original Research Paper


İskenderun Technical University



The aim of this study was to determine by SEM-EDS analysis of the surface morphologies of the periostracum and nacreous layer and to determine the sodium (Na), Strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), potassium (K), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) metals levels in the shells of the mussel (Potomida semirugata, Unio terminalis, Anodonta pseudodopsis and Leguminaia wheatleyi) obtained from Gölbaşı Lake, Turkey. The results of the study, the representative SEM analysis and corresponding EDS spectra of the periostracum and nacreous layer of the shells of freshwater mussels confirmed the presence of elemental compositions, including CaCO3. P. semirugata and U. terminalis have the aragonite prismatic layer that shows typical polygonal organizing, regular and polygonal crystal forms, with hexagonal and coexisting rhombic shapes. However, while A. pseudodopsis has round aragonite crystals (Rc), L. wheatleyi has irregular crystal plate layers (Irc). CaCO3, detected strong Ca peaks as well as C and O peaks with Mg and Si peaks. On the other hand, sodium (Na) was found in the highest concentrations ranging from 82.30±0.040 to 155.37±0.050 μg/g, and its concentrations were also higher than those of other metals in all species. The most abundant elements in shells of four freshwater mussel’s species were Sr, Na, and Mn which ranged from 26.07±0.44-58.023±0.52 μg/g, 82.30±0.040-155.37±0.050 μg/g, and 6.06±0.044-9.66±0.053 μg/g respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey that is researched the different four freshwater mussel species in the Gölbaşı Lake, Turkey.


Main Subjects