Seasonal variability in water chemistry and sediment characteristics of intertidal zone at Karnafully estuary, Bangladesh

Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh

2 Department of Marine Bio-resources Science, Faculty of Fisheries, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong 4225, Bangladesh

3 Shushilan, Khulna, Bangladesh



The Karnafully is one of the most important rivers due to its profound influence on water chemistry and sediment characteristics. The present study intended to assess the quality of water and sediment from intertidal zone of this river in respect to the pollution index. Seasonal water and sediment samples were collected during four seasons (Monsoon, post-monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon) of 2014. The result indicates that these investigated parameters ranged as water temperature (21.7-36 °C), pH (8.0-8.7), salinity (2.4-8.8‰), total suspended solid (0.08-0.8 g/L), dissolve oxygen (0.00-4.52 mg/L), soil temperature (21.3-33 °C), pH (5.0-6.8), sand (4.13-44.10%), silt (39.93-75.89%), clay (11.98-21.19%), soil organic matter (4.33-6.21%), organic carbon (2.5-3.6%), nitrite-nitrogen (0.69-3.97 µg/L), and phosphate-phosphorus (0.23-3.44 µg/L). Multivariate statistical analyses like post-hoc LSD test, Cluster Analysis (CA), and Principal Component analysis (PCA) brought out the spatial and temporal changing pattern of water chemistry and sediment characteristics with the effect of uprising pollution. CA ascertained the compatibility among different parameters and categorized the monitoring sites into highly and moderately polluted areas. Moreover, PCA brought out five primary components and highlighted the three dormant factors, enormously regulating the river water chemistry such as municipal waste, carbon based nitrogenous compound, and local geomorphological weathering process. This investigation provided an outline on deterioration of water and sediment quality by high anthropogenic impact and suggests national policy maker to take some initiatives for retaining the quality water and sediment properties. 


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