Study of Cadmium and Nickel Removal from Battery Industry Wastewater by Fe2O3 Nanoparticles

Document Type: Original Research Paper


School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Nickel and cadmium usually enter the environment and water resources through wastewater, released by various industries, and may have adverse effects. The current study employs α–Fe2O3 nanoparticles of 20-40 nm in order to remove nickel and cadmium from the wastewater of Saba Battery Company. Also, it investigates the influence of effective parameters on adsorption process, including pH, contact time, and the adsorbent rate so that it can optimize the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption rate of nickel and cadmium can be observed in pH ranges of 5 to 9. In addition, adsorption rates for nickel (at pH = 7) and for cadmium (at pH = 5) have been 92.98% and 93.97%, respectively. By increasing the adsorbent rate, the adsorption grows, due to the increase in absorbate surface area, and an optimum adsorbent rates of 0.15 g and 0.2 g are obtained for cadmium and nickel, respectively. The maximum nickel and cadmium adsorption rates occur during the first 60 min of contact with nanoparticles. In this study, adsorption kinetics and isotherms have also been investigated and it has been found that the adsorption kinetics of both nickel and cadmium ions follow the pseudo-second-order model, while adsorption isotherms of nickel and cadmium follow the Freundlich model.


Ahluwalia, S.S. and Goyal, D. (2007). Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresource. Technol., 98(12); 2243-2257.
Alarcon-Payan, D.A., Koyani, R.D. and Vazquez-Duhalt, R. (2017). Chitosan-based biocatalytic nanoparticles for pollutant removal from wastewater. Enzyme. Microb. Tech., 100; 71-78.

Amen, T.W.M., Eljamal, O., Khalil, A.M.E. and Matsunaga, N. (2018). Wastewater degradation by iron/copper nanoparticles and the microorganism growth rate. J. Environ. Sci., 74; 19-31.

Azadi, F., Karimi-Jashni, A. and Zerafat, M.M. (2018). Green synthesis and optimization of nano-magnetite using Persicaria bistorta root extract and its application for rosewater distillation wastewater treatment. Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 165; 467-475.
Bahadir,T., Bakan,G., Altas,L. and Buyukgungor, H. (2007). The investigation of lead removal by biosorption: An application at storage battery industry wastewaters. Enzyme. Microb. Tech., 41(1-2); 98-102.
Behboudi, A., Jafarzadeh, Y. and Yegani, R. (2018). Incorporation of silica grafted silver nanoparticles into polyvinyl chloride/polycarbonate hollow fiber membranes for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 135; 153-165.
Chen,Y., Qian, H., Wu, F. and Zhou, J. (2011). Clearance and recovery of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by magnetic separation technology. Chemosphere, 83(9); 1214-1219.

Chergui, A., madjene, f., trari, M. and Khouider, A. ( 2014). Nickel removal by biosorption onto medlar male flowers coupled with photocatalysis on the spinel ZnMn


. J. Environ. Health. Sci., 12(1):13; 1-10.
Coman, V., Robotin, B. and Ilea, P. (2013). Nickel recovery/removal from industrial wastes: A review. Resour. Conserv. Recy., 73; 229– 238.
Dermentzis, K., Valsamidou, E. and Marmanis, D. (2012 ). Simultaneous removal of acidity and lead from acid lead battery wastewater by aluminum and iron electrocoagulation. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Rev., 5(2); 1-5.

Elouear, Z., Bouzid, J. and Boujelben, N. (2009). Removal of nickel and cadmium from aqueous solutions by sewage sludge ash: study in single and binary systems. Environ. Technol., 30(6); 561-570.

Eskandari, Z., Talaiekhozani, A.R., Talaie, M.R. and Banisharif, F. (2019). Enhancing ferrate(VI) oxidation process to remove blue 203 from wastewater utilizing MgO nanoparticles. J. Environ. Manage., 231; 297-302.

Gupta, V.K. and Nayak, A. (2012). Cadmium removal and recovery from aqueous solutions by novel adsorbents prepared from orange peel and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Chem. Eng. J., 180; 81– 90.

Hu, J., Chen, G. and Lo, I. M.C. (2005). Removal and recovery of Cr(VI) from wastewater by maghemite nanoparticles. Water Res., 39(18); 4528–4536.

Iqbal, M., Saeed, A. and Zafar, S.I. (2007). Hybrid biosorbent: an innovative matrix to enhance the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution. J. hazard. Mater., 148(1-2); 47–55.

Jadhav, J. and Biswas, S. (2018). Hybrid ZnO:Ag core-shell nanoparticles for wastewater treatment: Growth mechanism and plasmonically enhanced photocatalytic activity. Appl. Surf. Sci., 456; 49-58.
Kanel, S.R., Manning, B., Charlet, L. and Choi, H. (2005). Removal of arsenic (III) from groundwater by nanoscale zero – valent iron. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(5); 1291-1298.

Liu, F., Zhou, K., Chen, Q., Wang, A. and Chen, W. (2019). Application of magnetic ferrite nanoparticles for removal of Cu(II) from copper-ammonia wastewater. J. Alloy. Compd., 773; 140-149.

Mohammad, M., Maitra, S., Ahmad, N., Bustam, A., Sen, T.K. and Dutta, B.K. (2010). Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull. J. Hazard. Mater., 179(1-3); 363-372.

Nosier, S.A. (2003). Removal of cadmium ions from industrial wastewater by cementation. Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q., 17(3); 219-224.

Onundi, Y. B., Mamun, A.A., Al Khatib, M.F., Al Saadi, M.A. and Suleyman, A.M. (2011). Heavy metals removal from synthetic wastewater by a novel nano-size composite adsorbent. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 8(4); 799-806.

Pouretedal, H.R. (2018). Visible photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2/Zr,N nanoparticles in wastewater treatment of nitrotoluene samples. J. Alloy. Compd., 735; 2507-2511.

Pyrzynska, K.  and Bystrzejewski, M. (2010). Comparative study of heavy metal ions sorption onto activated carbon , carbon nanotubes , and carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles. Colloid. Surface A., 362(1-3); 102–109.

Rostami, K.H. and Joodaki, M.R. (2002). Some studies of cadmium adsorption using Aspergillus niger, Penicillium austurianum, employing an airlift fermenter. Chem. Eng. J., 89(1-3); 239-252.

Shahriari, T., Nabi Bidhendi, G.R., Mehrdadi, N. and Torabian, A. (2014). Removal of Chromium (III) from Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Method. KSCE J. Civil Eng., 18(4); 949-955.

Shen, Y.F., Tang, J., Nie, Z.H., Wang, Y.D., Ren, Y. and Zuo, L. (2009). Preparation and application of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for wastewater purification. Sep. Purif. Technol. 68(3); 312-319.

Sheng, Z., Van Nostrand, J.D., Zhou, J. and Liu, Y. (2018). Contradictory effects of silver nanoparticles on activated sludge wastewater treatment. J. Hazard. Mater., 341; 448-456.

Vilardi, G., Palma, L.D. and Verdone, N. (2018). On the critical use of zero valent iron nanoparticles and Fenton processes for the treatment of tannery wastewater, J. Water Process Eng., 22; 109-122.

Wang, T., Ai, S., Zhou, Y., Luo, Z., Dai, C., Yang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, H., Luo, S. and Luo, L. (2018). Adsorption of agricultural wastewater contaminated with antibiotics, pesticides and toxic metals by functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 6(5); 6468-6478.

Zavvar Mousavi, H. and Seyedi, S.R. (2011). Nettle ash as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of nickel and cadmium from wastewater. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 8(1); 195-202.