Performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine running on neem (Azadirachta indica) biodiesel with effect of exhaust gas recirculation at optimum injection strategies

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Mechanical Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, P.O. Box 248002, Uttarakhand, India

2 Mechanical Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, P.O. Box 248007, Uttarakhand, India

3 Mechanical Engineering, G L Bajaj Institute of Technology and Management, Greater Noida, P.O. Box 201306, Uttar Pradesh, India

4 Mechanical Engineering, Hindustan College of Science and Technology, Mathura, P.O. Box 281122, Uttar Pradesh, India


Environmental pollution and strict emission norms are promoting researchers to explore the methods for reducing pollution and provide optimum solution. By considering these situation as the baseline, study was conducted to analyse the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance and emission of the DI diesel engine. The effects of Injection Timings (IT), split injection and Exhaust Gas Recirculation on performance, emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled neem biodiesel blends are investigated. Initially experiments are conducted with diesel, NB5, NB10 with original injection timing of 23° bTDC with direct injection and are considered as base reading. The fuel injection is optimized (at 19° bTDC and 16% split injection) and the effect of EGR rate at this optimized condition is analysed. Significant reduction of about 65.3%, 67% and 57% in the amount of NOx was obtained at full load as compared to base readings. Smoke emissions reduced by 2.8-3.4% and CO emissions reduced by around 52% for diesel and biodiesel blends at full load.


Adepoju, T.F. (2020). Optimization processes of biodiesel production from pig and neem (Azadirachta indica a.Juss) seeds blend oil using alternative catalysts from waste biomass. Industrial Crops and Products, 149; 112334.
Agarwal, D., Kumar, L. and Agarwal, A.K. (2008). Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine. Renewable Energy, 33(6); 1147-1156.
Ashok, B., Nanthagopal, K., Thundil Karuppa Raj, R., Pradeep Bhasker, J. and Sakthi Vignesh, D. (2017). Influence of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation of a Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled CI engine. Fuel Processing Technology, 167; 18-30.
Barik, D. and Vijayaraghavan, R. (2020). Effects of waste chicken fat derived biodiesel on the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 41(1); 88-97.
Damodharan, D., Sathiyagnanam, A.P., Rana, D., Kumar, B.R. and Saravanan, S. (2018). Combined influence of injection timing and EGR on combustion, performance and emissions of DI diesel engine fueled with neat waste plastic oil. Energy Conversion and Management, 161; 294-305.
Dhar, A., Kevin, R. and Agarwal, A.K. (2012). Production of biodiesel from high-FFA neem oil and its performance, emission and combustion characterization in a single cylinder DICI engine. Fuel Processing Technology, 97; 118-129.
Du, J., Sun, W., Guo, L., Xiao, S., Tan, M., Li, G. and Fan, L. (2015). Experimental study on fuel economies and emissions of direct-injection premixed combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management, 100; 300-309.
Elkelawy, M., Bastawissi, H.A.-E., Esmaeil, K.K., Radwan, A.M., Panchal, H., Sadasivuni, K.K., Suresh, M. and Israr, M. (2020). Maximization of biodiesel production from sunflower and soybean oils and prediction of diesel engine performance and emission characteristics through response surface methodology. Fuel, 266; 117072.
Gad, M. and Jayaraj, S. (2020). A comparative study on the effect of nano-additives on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine run on Jatropha biodiesel. Fuel, 267; 117168.
Gandure, J., Ketlogetswe, C. and Temu, A. (2014). Fuel properties of biodiesel produced from selected plant kernel oils indigenous to Botswana: A comparative analysis. Renewable energy, 68; 414-420.
Ge, J.C., Kim, M.S., Yoon, S.K. and Choi, N.J. (2015). Effects of pilot injection timing and EGR on combustion, performance and exhaust emissions in a common rail diesel engine fueled with a canola oil biodiesel-diesel blend. Energies, 8(7); 7312-7325.
How, H.G., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A. and Teoh, Y.H. (2018). Influence of injection timing and split injection strategies on performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blended fuels. Fuel, 213; 106-114.
Huang, H., Li, Z., Teng, W., Huang, R., Liu, Q. and Wang, Y. (2019). Effects of EGR rates on combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine with n-butanol/PODE3-4/diesel blends. Applied Thermal Engineering, 146; 212-222.
Jain, A., Singh, A.P. and Agarwal, A.K. (2017). Effect of split fuel injection and EGR on NOx and PM emission reduction in a low temperature combustion (LTC) mode diesel engine. Energy, 122; 249-264.
Karmakar, A., Karmakar, S. and Mukherjee, S. (2010). Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource technology, 101(19); 7201-7210.
Khandal, S., Banapurmath, N. and Gaitonde, V. (2017). Effect of exhaust gas recirculation, fuel injection pressure and injection timing on the performance of common rail direct injection engine powered with honge biodiesel (BHO). Energy, 139; 828-841.
Lee, C., Chung, J. and Lee, K. (2017). Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology. Energies, 10(12); 2146.
Manigandan, S., Gunasekar, P., Poorchilamban, S., Nithya, S., Devipriya, J. and Vasanthkumar, G.
Pollution, 6(4): 725-735, Autumn 2020
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
(2019). Effect of addition of hydrogen and TiO2 in gasoline engine in various exhaust gas recirculation ratio. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(21); 11205-11218.
Naveen, K.and Sharma, P. (2005). Jatropha curcus: a sustainable source for production of biodiesel. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 64(11); 883-889.
Pan, M., Huang, R., Liao, J., Ouyang, T., Zheng, Z., Lv, D. and Huang, H. (2018). Effect of EGR dilution on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with n-pentanol and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate additive. Energy Conversion and Management, 176; 246-255.
Rajesh Kumar, B. and Saravanan, S. (2016). Effects of iso-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends on performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine under premixed LTC (low temperature combustion) mode. Fuel, 170; 49-59.
Rajesh Kumar, B., Saravanan, S., Rana, D., Anish, V. and Nagendran, A. (2016). Effect of a sustainable biofuel – n-octanol – on the combustion, performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine under naturally aspirated and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) modes. Energy Conversion and Management, 118; 275-286.
Sayin, C. and Canakci, M. (2009). Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine. Energy conversion and management, 50(1); 203-213.
Sharma, A., Singh, Y., Kumar Singh, N., Singla, A., Chyuan Ong, H. and Chen, W.-H. (2020). Effective utilization of tobacco (Nicotiana Tabaccum) for biodiesel production and its application on diesel engine using response surface methodology approach. Fuel, 273; 117793.
Sharma, Y., Singh, B. and Upadhyay, S. (2008). Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review. Fuel, 87(12); 2355-2373.
Singh, R., Chaudhary, R., Pandey, R., Maji, S., Babbar, A., Chauhan, B., Gautam, R. and Mishra, C. (2012). Performance evaluation of an air cooled diesel engine fuelled with neat neem oil and diesel blends. Journal of Biofuels, 3(1); 58-64.
Szabados, G. and Bereczky, Á. (2018). Experimental investigation of physicochemical properties of diesel, biodiesel and TBK-biodiesel fuels and combustion and emission analysis in CI internal combustion engine. Renewable Energy, 121; 568-578.
Uzun, B.B., Kılıç, M., Özbay, N., Pütün, A.E. and Pütün, E. (2012). Biodiesel production from waste frying oils: Optimization of reaction parameters and determination of fuel properties. Energy, 44(1); 347-351.
Veljković, V.B., Lakićević, S.H., Stamenković, O.S., Todorović, Z.B. and Lazić, M.L. (2006). Biodiesel production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed oil with a high content of free fatty acids. Fuel, 85(17); 2671-2675.
Vinayaka, A.S., Mahanty, B., Rene, E.R. and Behera, S.K. (2018). Biodiesel production by transesterification of a mixture of pongamia and neem oils. Biofuels, 1-9.
Yin, B., Wang, J., Yang, K. and Jia, H. (2014). Optimization of EGR and split injection strategy for light vehicle diesel low temperature combustion. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 15(7); 1043-1051.