Modeling the Consequences of Benzene Leakage from Tank using ALOHA in Tar Refining Industrial of Kerman, Iran

Document Type: Original Research Paper


1 Department of Environmental, School of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Management and Planning, Graduate Faculty of Environment, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Environmental, School of Natural Resources, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Arid and Desert Regions Management, School of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


The emission and dispersion of pollutants from the tanks of coking and tar refining industries in the environment is always probable. This study aimed to evaluate the hazard radius of benzene release from the tank of one of the coking and tar refining industries. Areal Location of Hazardouse Atmosphere (ALOHA) model Version 5.4.7 was used to predict the hazard radius of leakage and dispersion of benzene from a tank in different seasons. The maps of the toxic and flammable vapor cloud of benzene, evaporation rate from puddle and the concentration of toxic and flammable vapor cloud inside and outside of the office building were prepared. The results indicated that the maximum average benzene released from the tank was 282 Kg/min and the total amount of benzene leakage was 11997 kg in 60 min in summer. The maximum diameter of the created evaporating puddle was 71 m in autumn. The maximum toxic and flammable concentrations of benzene inside an office building were 772 and 936 ppm, respectively whilethey were 3720 and 3540 ppm outside a building in autumn. Based on the Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) and Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) criterias, the maximum hazard radius was 1200 and 200 m in autumn. The toxic vapor cloud of benzene covered some parts of the adjacent coking plant. However, the boundaries of the flammable vapor cloud failed to reach the adjacent industries. The scenario of this study is safe for the adjacent residents and unsafe for the personnel. Thus, presenting a strategy to deal with this process incident is essential.


Beheshti, M. H., Dehghan, S. F., Hajizadeh, R., Jafari, S. M. and Koohpaei, A. (2018). Modelling the consequences of explosion, fire and gas leakage in domestic cylinders containing LPG. Ann. Med. Health. Sci. Res., 8, 83-88.
Pollution, 7(1): 217-230, Winter 2021
Cherradi, G., Boulmakoul, A. and Zeitouni, K. (2018). An atmospheric dispersion modeling microservice for hazmat transportation. Procedia. Comput. Sci., 130, 526-532.
Calixto, E. and Larouvere, E. L. (2010). The regional emergency plan requirement: Application of the best practices to the Brazilian case. Saf. Sci., 48(8), 991-999.
Fatemi, F., Ardalan, A., Aguirre, B., Mansouri, N. and Mohammadfam, I. (2017). Areal location of hazardous atmospheres simulation on toxic chemical release: a scenario-based case study from Ray, Iran. Electron. Physician., 9(10), 5638.
Gas, L. (2013). Lower and upper explosive limits for flammable gases and vapors (LEL/UEL). Matheson. gas. Prod., 1-22.
Hassoon, A. F., Al-Jiboori, M. H. and Anad, A. M. (2019). Simulation effect of stability classes on SO2 concentration in dura refinery and Neighboring regions. Al-Mustansiriyah. J. Sci., 30(3), 1-8.
Hosseinnia, B., Khakzad, N. and Reniers, G. (2018). Multi-plant emergency response for tackling major accidents in chemical industrial areas. Saf. Sci., 102, 275-289.
Hobza, P., Selzle, HL. and Schlag, EW. (1994). Structure and properties of benzene-containing molecular clusters: nonempirical ab initio calculations and experiments. Chem. Rev., 94(7); 1767-85.
Ilic, P., Ilic, S. and Bjelicc, L. S. (2018). Hazard Modelling of Accidental Release Chlorine Gas Using Modern Tool-Aloha Software. Qual. Life., 16(1-2).
Jafarnia, A., Khorrambakht, A. and Ghanbari, A. (2018). Geographical Survey of Chlorine Gas Leakage at the Chlorination Station of Abfa Company Using Aloha Software (Case Study: Lar Station). Environ. Manag. Hazards., 5(4); 435-48.
Jani, D. D., Reed, D., Feigley, C. E. and Svendsen, E. R. (2016). Modeling an irritant gas plume for epidemiologic study. Int. J. Environ. Health. Res., 26(1), 58-74.
Kasemy, Z. A., Kamel, G. M., Abdel-Rasoul, G. M. and Ismail, A. A. (2019). Environmental and health effects of benzene exposure among Egyptian taxi drivers. J. Environ. Public. Health., 2019. 1-6.
Kalatpoor, O., Goshtasp, K. and Khavaji, S. (2010). Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran. Ind. Health., 1012100041-1012100041.
Li, Y., Chen, D., Cheng, S., Xu, T., Huang, Q., Guo, X., and Liu, X. (2015). An improved model for heavy gas dispersion using time-varying wind data: Mathematical basis, physical assumptions, and case studies. J. Loss. Prev. Process. Ind., 36, 20-29.
Mao, S., Lang, J., Chen, T., Cheng, S., Wang, C., Zhang, J. and Hu, F. (2020). Impacts of typical atmospheric dispersion schemes on source inversion. Atmos. Environ., 117572.
Macdonald, R. (2003). Theory and objectives of air dispersion modelling. Model. Air. Emissions. Compliance., 1-27.
Oribi, M. O. and Abdulkareem, A. K. (2020). Scenarios to reduce evaporation from class A evaporation pan by using windbreaks. Eng. Environ. Sci., 29 (3), 343–354.
Onelcin, P., Mutlu, M. M., and Alver, Y. (2013). Evacuation plan of an industrial zone: Case study of a chemical accident in Aliaga, Turkey and the comparison of two different simulation softwares. Saf. Sci., 60, 123-130.
Pourbabaki, R., Karimi, A. and Yazdanirad, S. (2019). Modeling the consequences and analyzing the dangers of carbon disulfide emissions using ALOHA software in an oil refinery. J. Health. Field, 6(3), 24199-24199.
Ramli, A., Ghani, N. A., Hamid, N. A. and Desa, M. S. Z. M. (2018). Consequence modelling for estimating the toxic material dispersion using ALOHA: Case studies at two different chemical plants. Proceedings, 2(20), 1268.
Shahpari, A., Aminsharei, F. and Ghashang, M. (2019). Application of PHAST software in methane emission factor for startup process of gas compressors (Case study: Iran gas transmission operation district 2). J. Air. Pollut. Health., 4(1); 27-32.
Shamsuddin, S. D., Omar, N., and Koh, M. H. (2017). Development of radionuclide dispersion modeling software based on Gaussian plume model. Malays. J. Ind. Appl. Mathematics., 33(2); 149-157.
Soleimani, M. and Amini, N. (2017). Source identification and apportionment of air pollutants in Iran. J. Air. Pollut. Health., 2(1): 57-72.
Tseng, J. M., Su, T. S. and Kuo, C. Y. (2012). Consequence evaluation of toxic chemical releases by ALOHA. Procedia. Eng., 45, 384-389.
U.S. EPA and NOAA. (2007). User's Manual ALOHA. 5-195.
Vianelloa, C., Guerrinia, L., Maschio, G. and Murab, A. (2014). Consequence analysis: comparison of methodologies under API standard and commercial software. Chem. Eng., 36.
Wu, J., Yang, H. and Cheng, Y. (2015). Domino effect analysis, assessment and prevention in process industries. J. Syst. Sci. Inf., 3(6), 481-498.
Shojaee Barjoee, S., et al.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
Yu, H., Lee, W. K. and Sohn, J. R. (2020). Risk hotspot of chemical accidents based on spatial analysis in Ulsan, South Korea. Saf. Sci., 123, 104544.
Zhao, D., Wang, Z. R., Song, Z. Y., Guo, P. K. and Cao, X. Y. (2020). Assessment of domino effects in the coal gasification process using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Bayesian Network. Saf. Sci., 130, 104888.
Zhang, H., Xu, T., Zong, Y., Tang, H., Liu, X. and Wang, Y. (2015). Influence of meteorological conditions on pollutant dispersion in street canyon. Procedia. Eng., 121, 899-905.