Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Marcia recens, an Edible Bivalve of Ashtamudi Lake, a Ramsar Site (1204), India

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 P.G and Research Department of Zoology, Sree Narayana College, Kollam, Kerala, India

2 University of KeP.G and Research Department of Zoology, Sree Narayana College, Kollam, Kerala, Indiarala, India


As a RAMSAR site (no.1204), Ashtamudi Lake has very productive and significant ecosystem services. Currently, the lake is being threatened by severe pollution stress, especially with heavy metals. Heavy metal pollution is a great concern of matter as it enters in the bioaccumulation and  bio-magnification processes of the aquatic food chain. The present study seasonally investigated the bioaccumulation   of seven heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd and Co) in the body tissues of an edible bivalve, Marcia recens, from three sampling stations (viz. Neendakara, Kureepuzha and Asramam) of the lake during the study period in 2019. The results showed that, as per the standard permissible limits (FAO/USEPA, 1989), some of the metal accumulations  were extremely high in the bivalve tissues. Highest Metal Pollution Index was observed in station Ⅱ. There were significant spatial and temporal variations in the accumulation of heavy metals in the the examined bivalve. Two way ANOVA analysis also reveals a statistically significant differences (p<0.5), in the heavy metal accumulation in the bivalve,  among the stations as well as seasons. The continual exposure to even a relatively low levels of these metals by regular consumption of contaminated bivalves, may entail adverse health issues. Implementation of appropriate scientific and sustainable conservation strategies will ensure the health of the estuaries and the sustainability of bio-resources.


Main Subjects

Abou El-Naga, E.H., El-Moselhy, Kh. M., & Mohamadein, L.I. (2001). Effect of Cadmium and Copper on the digestive gland enzymes of the Limpet Patella sp.Mollusca, Gastropoda,J.Egypt. Academy Society Environ. Devpt. 2(1), 29-36.
Alexander. C.S. (1972). Cobalt – beer Cardiomyopathy: a clinical and pathological study of twenty eight cases. The American Journal of Medicine, 53, 395-417.
APHA (2005). Standard Methods of Examination of Water and Waste water. 21sted. American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington D.C.,USA.
Arathi, A. R., Oliver, P. G., Ravinesh, R., & Bijukumar, A. (2018). The Ashtamudi Lake short neck clam: reassigned to the genus Marcia H. Adams A. Adams,1857 (Bivalvia, Veneridae). Zookeys,799,1-20.
Arathi, A.R., Oliver, PG., Ravinesh. R., Siby, P., & Bijukumar, A. (2019). Classification of the taxonomic status of Paphia malabarica (Chemnitz,1782) and does it matter.Journal of aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 7, 15-23.
Barath Kumar,S., Padhi., R.K., & Satpathy, K.K. (2019). Trace metal distribution in Crab organs and human health risk assessment on consumption of Crabs collected from  Coastal Water of Southeast Coast of India. Marine pollution Bulletin 141,273-282.
Blackhima, R.J., (1970). In: Mills, C.F.(Ed.), Trace Elements in Metabolism in Animals. Edinburgh, Livingstone, 1,426-429.
Bootsma, N., Macey, D.J., Webb,J., & Talbot, V. (1988). Isolartion and characterization of ferritin from the hepato-pancreas of the mussel  Mytilus edulis. BioMetals,1,106-111.
Bryan.G.W., (1976). Some aspects of heavy metal tolerance in aquatic organisms. In: A.P.M. Lockwood (Ed.) Effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms.Cambridge,7-34.
Da Silveira Fiori, C., de Castro Rodrigues, A.P., Castro Vieria, T., Sabadini-Santos,E., & Dausacker Bidone, E.(2018). An alternative approach to bioaccumulation assessment of methyl-Hg,total- Hg, Cd, Pb,Zn, in bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana from Rio de Janeiro Bays. Mar. Pollut. Bull.135, 418-426.
Erk, M., Ivanković, D., Župan, I., Čulin, J., Dragun, Z., Puljas, S., & Peharda, M. (2018). Changes in the tissue concentrations of trace elements during the reproductive cycle of Noah’s ark shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758). Marine pollution bulletin, 133, 357-366.
Godt, J., Scheidig, F., Grosse-Siestrup, C., Esche, V., Brandenburg, P., Reich, A., & Groneberg, D. A. (2006). The toxicity of cadmium and resulting hazards for human health. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology, 1(1), 1-6. 
Jordaens, K., De Wolf , H., Vandecasteele, B., Blust, R., & Backeljau, T., (2006). Associations between shell strength, shell morphology and heavy metals in the land snail  Cepaea nemoralis (Gastropoda,Helicidae). Sci. Total Environ. 363, 285-293.
Jorgenson, C.B. (1996).Bivalve Filter Feeding revisited Marine Ecology Progress series, 142,287-302
Latouche,  Y.D., & Mix, M.C. (1982). The effects of depuration, size and sex on trace metal levels in Bay Mussels. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 13:(1),  27-29.
Martincic.D., Z.Kwokal & M. Branica,M.Stoeppler. (1987). Trace metals in selected organisms from Adriatic Sea. Marine Chemistry. 22(2-4),207-220.
Massadeh, A., Tahat,M., Jaradat,Q., & Al-Momani, L., (2004). Lead and Cadmium contamination in roadside soils in Irbid City,Jordan: a case study. Soil and sediment contamination (Formerly Journal of soil Contamination). 13(4), 347-359.
Nagaraj Sitaram. (2014). Impact of Urbanisation on Water quality parameters - A case study of Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3:(6). IRRDCE-2014, eISSN: 2319-1163; pISSN: 2321-7308.
Padmini E., & Geetha,B.V.(2007). A Comparitive seasonal pollution assessment study on ennore Estuary with respect to metal accumulation in the grey mullet, Mugil cepahalus. Int. J. Oceanog. Hydrobiol, 34(4):01-103.
Piotr Rzymski, Katarzyna Tomczyk Pawel Rzymski, Barbara Poniedzialek, & Tomasz Opala Marciej Wilczak.(2015). Impact of heavy metals on female reproductive system. Review paper. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med; 2015,22(2),259-264.
Surya Lekshmi Prasad, & K. Mophin Kani. (2017). Water Quality Assessment of Ashtamudi Lake Using Nsfqi. International Journal of Emerging Technology and advanced Engineering IJETAE. E. ISSN 2250-2459, 7 (1).
Szfer. P. (2002). Metals, Metalloids and Radionucleids in the Battic Sea ecosystem.Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2002.
Topping (1973 a). Heavy metals in fish from Scottish waters.aquaculture.1,373-37
USFDA (United States Food and Drug Administration),1993. Guidance Doccument for Cadmium in Shellfish.US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Seafood(HFS-416),200C Street,SW,Washington,DC.20204,44.
Y. Guo., Y.Wang & B.Huang. (2020). The acute toxicity effects of heaxvalent Chromium in antioxidant system and gonad development to male clam  Geloina coaxans. The European Zoological Journal,87, (1), 325-335.
Usero, J., Gonzales-Regalado, E., &  Gracia, I. (1996). Trace metalsin bivalve molluscs Chamelea gallina from the Atlantic Coast of southern Spain. Marine Pollution Bull., 32, 305–310.
Usero, J., Gonzales-Regalado, E., & Gracia, I. (1997). Trace metals in bivalve molluscs Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum from the Atlantic Coast of southern Spain. Environmental International, 23, 291–298.
FAO/WHO. (2003). Summary and conclusions of the 61st Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Rome.
JECFA, (1982). Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Twenty-sixth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series, No 683.World Health Organization, Geneva.
JECFA, (2011). Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Seventy third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO technical report series, No 960.World Health Organization, Geneva.
JECFA, (2003). Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. In: Summary and Conclusions of the 61st Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.EFSA, (2010). European Food Safety Authority. Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA J.8 (4), 1570.
USEPA, (1989). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Risk assessment guidance for superfund.Human health evaluation manual (Part A). Interim Final Office of Emergency and Remedial Respons EPA/540/1–89/002.
USEPA, (1993). Clean water Act. Sec.503. Washington DC: US Environmental Protection Agency,1993.
USEPA, (2015). United States Environmental Protection Agency. Risk based screening table.
FAO (1983). Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products. FAO Fish Circular, 464, 5–100.
FAO (1992). Committee for inland fisheries of Africa: Report of the third session of the working party on pollution and fisheries. FAO Fish. Rep., 471-473.
FAO/WHO (1989). National Research Council Recommended Dietary Allowances (10th ed). National Academy Press, Washington, DC. USA,302.
USFDA (1990). National Shellfish Sanitation Program Guide for the Control of Molluscan Shellfish 2007. Washington, 489.
USFDA (1993). Guidance Document for Cadmium in Shellfish. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Washington, 44.
WHO (1982). Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives, WHO Food Addit. Ser. No 17, World Health Org., Geneva, 28 - 35.