Performance Evaluation of Different Soil Media by Batch-Operated Pilot-Scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Raipur, P.O. Box 492010, Chhattisgarh, India



Constructed wetland systems (CWs) are low-cost natural treatment systems for various types of influents. Although mainly the natural wetlands are soil-based, the constructed wetlands have been traditionally built using aggregate media. The performance of four types of available soils in Chhattisgarh was studied as the filter media in the horizontal subsurface flow-constructed wetland (HSFCW). Fourteen pilot-scale CW units with different soil types (entisol, vertisol, alfisol, inceptisol, and stone aggregate) and plant types (Canna indica and Typha latifolia) were used to treat domestic wastewater (WW). One set of each soil base reactor was planted with Canna indica and Typha latifolia, and one was kept blank (unplanted). All soils and plants are easily available.
The reactors received primary wastewater in batch loads with WW loading for six hours to maintain aerobic conditions. The residence time of WW was 48 hours, and the applied hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was based on soil and aggregate. According to the findings, the planted HSFCW was more effective than the unplanted system. The results show that the wetland constructed on the treatment efficiency of the soil base has excellent potential to treat WW, with both plants.


Main Subjects

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