Assessment of some Heavy Metals and Health Risks in Water and Shrimps from a Polluted Mangrove Swamp, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

2 Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria



The heavy metal concentrations of water and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from Isaka Bundu swamp, Niger Delta were evaluated between January and June 2022. The non-carcinogenic health risk assessment was used to assess the water's suitability for recreation and the shrimps for consumption. Five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn) were assessed in both media using standard methods and compared with national and international standards. The Chronic daily intake (CDI) for Cd and Cu (in children) exceeded their respective reference doses while hazard quotients (HQs) for Cd and Cu (in children) and all the hazard indices were greater than 1 in the water. All the target hazard quotients (THQs) and total hazard index (THIs) were lower than 1 in the shrimps. The heavy metal concentrations, CDIs, HQ/THQs and HI/THIs were higher in the more impacted stations 1 and 3. Based on the heavy metal concentrations and health risk assessment, the waters of the Isaka Bundu swamp are unsafe for recreational purposes. However, shrimps are safe for human consumption. The high concentrations of heavy metals in the water influenced the concentrations in the shrimps. Anthropogenic activities in the area contributed to the heavy metal concentrations in the environment. The results also showed that the children were more prone to adverse health impacts. 


Main Subjects

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