A Preliminary Study on the Water Quality from two Estuaries in Madura Island, East Java, Indonesia

Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Laboratory of Ecology, Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Ketintang Campus, Surabaya 60231, East Java, Indonesia

2 Laboratory of Animal Systematics, Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Ketintang Campus, Surabaya 60231, East Java, Indonesia



The water quality in the western part of Madura Island is currently faced with a severe threat due to pollution. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the water quality from Bancaran and Kwanyar estuaries, Madura Island, using the physicochemical approaches. A total of eight physiochemical parameters such as salinity, temperature, pH, DO, CO2, BOD, Pb, and Cd were investigated at three sampling stations of each estuary on 15 June 2022 and 19 December 2022 to identify the potential environmental factors controlling the water quality for effective monitoring and management of these estuaries. The results showed that temperature (25–29.5ºC), pH (7.47–7.8), DO (2.45–4.57 ppm), CO2 (0.5–10.4 ppm), BOD (1.86–9.99 mg.L-1) and Pb (–0.55 to –0.31 mg.L-1) differed significantly (P < 0.01), while salinity (0.2–2.90‰) and Cd (0.02–0.05 mg.L-1) did not exhibit significant differences (P > 0.05). Pearson’s correlation indicated significant positive correlations between salinity and Pb, as well as Cd and Pb. According to the principal component analysis (PCA), salinity and BOD were related to the Kwanyar estuary, while the other parameters were associated with the Bancaran estuary. This preliminary investigation showed a decline in the water quality of these estuaries, specifically from DO measurement. Although low DO levels occur naturally, the continuous occurrence will affect the living organisms in the water that plays an important role in the aquatic environment. Therefore, continuous monitoring of these estuaries is needed to provide better information and for protection as well as sustainable use of water resources.


Main Subjects

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